Advertisement

Introduction

  • Conrad Kickert
  • Mahyar Arefi
Chapter

Abstract

This book delves into a question that has become increasingly prevalent over the past decade: Who shapes our cities? For over a century the answer to this question included a range of usual suspects, dependent on the global context. In the Modern era of the Global North, cities were usually shaped by governments, giving way over the decades to powerful private interests. The inflexibility of this order has prompted some of the most influential urban theorists of the twentieth century such as Jane Jacobs, Jan Gehl, and William Whyte to reappreciate individual agency in the Modern city, and Kevin Lynch to argue for a more democratic urban environment in which citizens can achieve a better ‘fit’ for their needs (Gehl 1987; Jacobs 1961; Lynch 1984; Whyte 1988). In the Global South cities have been shaped by a far more complex interplay of governmental and non-governmental organizations, politicians, and citizens. Conversely to the perhaps overly ordered environment of Western cities, informal cities in developing countries have often struggled to maintain a physical, social, and economic infrastructure for their populations, prompting concern among global organizations such as the United Nations and the World Health Organization. The status quo between Northern rigidity and Southern informality has increasingly been uprooted from the bottom up, shaking up global distinctions. This book explores the various new ways in which our urban environment is transformed by new stakeholders, challenging the public–private hegemony in Western countries, while bolstering a new urban order in the Global South.

References

  1. Abrahamse, J. E. (2011). De grote uitleg van Amsterdam: stadsontwikkeling in de zeventiende eeuw. Bussum: Thoth.Google Scholar
  2. Alexander, C., Ishikawa, S., & Silverstein, M. (1977). A pattern language: Towns, buildings, construction. New York: Oxford University Press. Google Scholar
  3. Baudelaire, C. (1869). Le Spleen de Paris - Petits Poemes en prose. Paris: Editions Nelsson.Google Scholar
  4. Berman, M. (1980). All that is solid melts into air: The experience of modernity. New York: Viking Penguin.Google Scholar
  5. Burdett, R., & Sudjic D. (2007). The endless city: An authoritative and visually rich survey of the contemporary city. London: Phaidon Press. Google Scholar
  6. Crawford, M., Chase, J., & Kaliski, J. (1999). Everyday urbanism. New York: Monacelli Press.Google Scholar
  7. De Certeau, M. (1984). The practice of everyday life. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  8. Francesca, F. (2014). Make shift city, renegotiating the urban commons. Berlin: Berlin Jovis Verlag.Google Scholar
  9. Franke, S., Niemans, J., & Soeterbroek, F. (2015). Het nieuwe stadmaken: van gedreven pionieren naar gelijk speelveld. Haarlem: Trancity Valiz.Google Scholar
  10. Geddes, P. (1915). Cities in evolution. London: Williams & Norgate.Google Scholar
  11. Gehl, J. (1987). Life between buildings: Using public space. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  12. Graham, S., & Marvin, S. (2001). Splintering urbanism: Networked infrastructures, technological mobilities and the urban condition. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  13. Habraken, N. J., & Teicher, J. (2000). The structure of the ordinary: Form and control in the built environment. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  14. Hall, P. (2002). Cities of tomorrow: An intellectual history of urban planning and design in the 20th century. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  15. Harvey, D. (2008). The right to the city. New Left Review, 53(September–October), 23–40.Google Scholar
  16. Hou, J. (2010). Insurgent public space: Guerrilla urbanism and the remaking of contemporary cities. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  17. Jacobs, J. (1961). The death and life of great American cities. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  18. Jacobs, J. (1969). The economy of cities. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  19. Kee, T., Miazzo, F., Pineda Revilla, B., Webster, C., Foundation & Trancity. (2014). We own the city: Enabling community practice in architecture and urban planning. Amsterdam: TrancityxValiz.Google Scholar
  20. Koolhaas, R., & Mau, B. (1995). S, M, L, XL. New York: Monacelli.Google Scholar
  21. Kostof, S. (1991). The city shaped: Urban patterns and meanings through history. Boston: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  22. Lefebvre, H. (1968). Le droit a la ville: Suivi de Espace et politique. Paris: Anthropos.Google Scholar
  23. Lydon, M., Garcia, A., & Duany, A. (2015). Tactical urbanism: Short-term action for long-term change. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  24. Lynch, K. (1984). Good city form. Cambridge: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  25. Marshall, S. (2009). Cities design and evolution. Abingdon and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  26. Morris, A. E. J. (1972). History of urban form, prehistory to the Renaissance. London: George Godwin Ltd.Google Scholar
  27. Mould, O. (2014). Tactical urbanism: The new vernacular of the creative city. Geography Compass, 8(8), 529–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mukhija, V., & Loukaitou-Sideris, A. (2014). The informal American city: Beyond taco trucks and day labor. Cambridge: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  29. Mumford, L. (1961). The city in history: Its origins, its transformations, and its prospects (Vol. 67). New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.Google Scholar
  30. Murray, M. J. (2017). The urbanism of exception: The dynamics of global city building in the twenty-first century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Park, R. E., & Burgess, E. W., (Eds.) (1925). The city (1st ed.). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  32. Peterson, J. A. (1976). The city beautiful movement: Forgotten origins and lost meanings. Journal of Urban History, 2(4), 415–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ridley, J. (1998). Edwin Lutyens, New Delhi, and the architecture of imperialism. The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 26(2), 67–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rowe, C., & Koetter, F. (1984). Collage city. Cambridge: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  35. Sassen, S. (1994). Cities in a world economy. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press.Google Scholar
  36. Sassen, S. (2001). The Global City: New York. London and Tokyo: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Shane, D. G. (2004). Recombinant urbanism: Conceptual modelling in architecture, urban design and city theory. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  38. Sitte, C. (1889). Der Städte-Bau nach seinen künstlerischen Grundsätzen: ein Beitrag zur Lösung modernster Fragen der Architektur und monumentalen Plastik unter besonderer Beziehung auf Wien (2e. Aufl. ed.). Wien: C. Graeser & Co.Google Scholar
  39. Talen, E. (2015). Do-it-yourself urbanism: A history. Journal of Planning History, 14(2), 135–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tonkiss, F. (2013). Austerity urbanism and the makeshift city. City, 17(3), 312–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Tyrwhitt, J., (Ed.). (1947). Patrick Geddes in India. London: Lund Humphries.Google Scholar
  42. Whyte, W. H. (1988). City: Rediscovering the center (1st ed.). New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Conrad Kickert
    • 1
  • Mahyar Arefi
    • 2
  1. 1.School of PlanningUniversity of CincinnatiCincinnatiUSA
  2. 2.Department of Planning and Landscape ArchitectureUniversity of Texas at ArlingtonArlingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations