On Iran’s Eastern Borders: Origins and Consecutive Treaties with the British During the Nineteenth Century

  • Mansoureh Ebrahimi
  • Kamaruzaman Yusoff


This chapter examines various treaties between Iran and Britain during the nineteenth century. It discusses the imposition of unjust treaties by regional and western powers as pacts that eventually separated Herat from Iran, a traditional component of the Persian Empire from ancient days. Moreover, Iranians, though not intimate with Afghans, nevertheless regarded their people as close tribal relatives with similar languages, religion and culture. Long before Afghanistan independence, and even after it, Afghans paid taxes, ransoms and tributes to the Iranian government. After its long history as part of Iran, Herat became independent by British cunning, and for the first time in its modern history, Afghanistan became an independent nation by means of British impositions.


The British Iran-British treaties Iran’s Eastern borders Demarcation of Iran’s boundaries 


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Islamic CivilizationUniversiti Teknologi MalaysiaJohor BahruMalaysia

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