Endophytic Bacteria in Tree Shoot Tissues and Their Effects on Host

  • Anna Maria PirttiläEmail author
Part of the Forestry Sciences book series (FOSC, volume 86)


Shoot endophytic bacteria have mainly been isolated during plant tissue culture started from shoot tips (buds) or embryos. With methods such as in situ hybridization and transmission electron microscopy, endophytic bacteria have been localized in buds, seeds, and flowers of forest trees. By GFP tagging of endophytic bacteria, colonization of tree seedlings has been observed. It is still unknown whether shoot-associated bacteria are transmitted to new trees via seeds, although many results point to this direction. Interactions between the plant and endophytic bacteria in the shoots likely differ to some extent from those in the roots. Shoot endophytic bacteria share some mechanisms of plant growth promotion with the root endophytes, such as the ability of producing plant growth hormones. In addition, some shoot endophytes may affect plant growth through production of adenine derivatives or bacterial photosynthesis. An interesting new mechanism of enhancing host growth is suggested for intracellular bacteria that can act directly through production of nucleomodulins, eukaryotic transcription factors, encoded in the bacterial genome. This mechanism was identified through genome sequencing of a shoot endosymbiont. Therefore, we can expect further interesting discoveries in the future on shoot endophytes of forest trees.



Transmission electron microscopy




Green fluorescent protein


Indole-acetic acid


Next-generation sequencing








Fluorescent in situ hybridization


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ecology and GeneticsUniversity of OuluOuluFinland

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