Advertisement

Beastly Blake pp 203-223 | Cite as

‘Train of Elephants’: Blake’s (Un)Tamed Beasts and Hayley’s Animal Ballads

  • Mark CrosbyEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Animals and Literature book series (PSAAL)

Abstract

Crosby examines William Blake’s original engraved designs to William Hayley’s animal ballads (1802 and 1805 editions), particularly the depiction of elephants, eagles, lions and crocodiles that concomitantly draw on and subvert contemporary Eurocentric graphic representations of animals. Crosby argues that Blake’s engravings and their placement within the text destabilised Hayley’s use of the ballad commission as a vehicle for patronage. Rather, the ballad commission provided Blake with an opportunity to articulate pictorially his frustration with the two dominant forms of patronage of the period: the private patron and the marketplace.

References

  1. Adams, John. 1792. A Second Volume of Curious Anecdotes, 2 vols. London: C. and G. Kearsley.Google Scholar
  2. Aikin, John, and Anna Letitia Barbauld. 1792–1796. Evenings at Home, or the Juvenile Budget Opened. London: J. Johnson.Google Scholar
  3. Atkinson, David. 2013. Was There Really a “Mass Extinction of Old Ballads” in the Romantic Period? In Street Ballads in Nineteenth-Century Britain, Ireland, and North America: The Interface Between Print and Oral Traditions, ed. David Atkinson and Steve Roud, 19–36. Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  4. Barker, N.J. 1959–1963. Some Notes on the Bibliography of William Hayley Part III. Transactions of the Cambridge Bibliographical Society 3: 339–360.Google Scholar
  5. Beattie, James. 1783. Dissertations Moral and Critical. London: W. Strahan and T. Cadell.Google Scholar
  6. Beilby, Ralph. 1792. A General History of Quadrupeds. Newcastle upon Tyne: S. Hodgson, R. Beilby and T. Bewick.Google Scholar
  7. Beilby, Ralph. 1797. A History of British Birds, 2 vols. Newcastle: Hodgson.Google Scholar
  8. Bentley, G.E., Jr. 1957. William Blake as a Private Publisher. Bulletin of the New York Public Library 61: 539–560.Google Scholar
  9. Bentley, G.E., Jr. 1975. William Blake: The Critical Heritage. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  10. Bentley, G.E., Jr. 2004. Blake Records, 2nd ed. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Bentley, G.E., Jr. 2014. William Blake in the Desolate Market. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Bingley, William. 1804. Animal Biography, or Popular Zoology, 3 vols. London: R. Phillips.Google Scholar
  13. Bishop, Morchard. 1951. Blake’s Hayley: The Life, Works, and Friendships of William Hayley. London: Victor Gollancz.Google Scholar
  14. Blake, William. 1988. The Complete Poetry and Prose of William Blake, rev. ed., ed. David V. Erdman. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  15. Blake, William. 2017. The William Blake Archive, ed. Morris Eaves, Robert N. Essick, and Joseph Viscomi. http://www.blakearchive.org.
  16. Butlin, Martin. 1982. The Paintings and Drawings of William Blake. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  17. The Children’s Miscellany. 1788. London: J. Stockdale.Google Scholar
  18. Cowper, William. 1785. The Task, a Poem, in Six Books. London: J. Johnson.Google Scholar
  19. Crosby, Mark. 2010. “A Ladys Book”: Blake’s Engravings for Hayley’s The Triumphs of Temper. In Blake in our Time: Essays in Honour of G.E. Bentley Jr., ed. Karen Mulhallen, 105–130. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  20. Crosby, Mark, and Angus Whitehead. 2012. Georgian Superwoman or “the Maddest of the Two”? Recovering the Historical Catherine Blake, 1762–1831. In Re-envisioning Blake, ed. Mark Crosby, Troy Paternaude, and Angus Whitehead, 83–107. Basingstoke: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  21. d’Obsonville, Foucher. 1784. Philosophic Essays on the Manners of Various Foreign Animals, trans. Thomas Holcroft. London: John Johnson.Google Scholar
  22. Dugaw, Dianne M. 1987. The Popular Marketing of “Old Ballads”: The Ballad Revival and Eighteenth-Century Antiquarianism Reconsidered. Eighteenth-Century Studies 21: 71–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Eaves, Morris. 1992. The Counter-Arts Conspiracy: Art and Industry in the Age of Blake. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Entwhistle, William J. 1939. European Balladry. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  25. Ertz, Klaus. 1984. Jan Breughel der Jüngere (1601–1678): die Gemälde mit kritischem Oeuvrekatalog. Lingen: Luca Verlag Freren.Google Scholar
  26. Essick, Robert N. 1989. William Blake and the Language of Adam. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  27. Essick, Robert N. 1991. William Blake’s Commercial Book Illustrations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Essick, Robert N., and Roger Easson. 1972. William Blake: Book Illustrator, A Bibliography and Catalogue of the Commercial Engravings. Normal, IL: The American Blake Foundation.Google Scholar
  29. Fowler, David. 1968. A Literary History of the Popular Ballad. Durham: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Gay, John. 1793. Fables by John Gay. London: J. Stockdale.Google Scholar
  31. Geroud, Gordon Hall. 1932. The Ballad Tradition. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  32. Hayley, William. 1802. A Series of Ballads Written by William Hayley Esq, and Founded on Anecdotes Relating to Animals Drawn, Engraved and Published by William Blake. Chichester: William Blake.Google Scholar
  33. Hayley, William. 1805. Ballads, Founded on Anecdotes Relating to Animals with Prints Designed and Engraved by William Blake. Chichester: J. Seagrave.Google Scholar
  34. Hayley, William. 1823. Memoirs of the Life and Writings of William Hayley Esquire, the Friend and Biographer of Cowper, Written by Himself with Extracts from His Private Correspondence and Unpublished Poetry and Memoirs of His Son, Thomas Alphonso Hayley—The Young Sculptor, ed. John Johnson, 2 vols. London: Henry Colburn.Google Scholar
  35. James, Felicity. 2014. Religious Dissent and the Aikin-Barbauld Circle, 1740–1860: An Introduction. In Religious Dissent and the Aikin-Barbauld Circle, 1740–1860, ed. Felicity James, and Ian Inkster, 1–27. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Keynes, Geoffrey. 1921. A Bibliography of William Blake. New York: Grolier.Google Scholar
  37. Lavater, Johann Caspar. 1789. Essays on Physiognomy, 3 vols. London: John Murray, et al.Google Scholar
  38. Mee, John. 1992. Dangerous Enthusiasm, William Blake and the Culture of Radicalism in the 1790s. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Ritson, Joseph. 1783. A Select Collection of English Songs, 3 vols. London: J. Johnson.Google Scholar
  40. Sato, Hikari. 2006. Blake, Hayley and India: On Designs to a Series of Ballads (1802). In The Reception of Blake in the Orient, ed. Steve Clark and Muashi Suzuki, 134–144. London: Continuum.Google Scholar
  41. Shepherd, Leslie. 1969. John Pitts, Ballad Printer of Seven Dials, London, 1765–1844. London: Private Libraries Association.Google Scholar
  42. St Clair, William. 2004. The Reading Nation in the Romantic Period. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Stone, Michael E. 2007. Adam’s Naming of the Animals: Naming or Creation? In The Poetics of Grammar and the Metaphysics of Sound and Sign, ed. S. La Porta and D. Shulman, 69–80. Boston: Brill.Google Scholar
  44. Summerfield, George. 1985. Fantasy and Reason: Children’s Literature in the Eighteenth Century. Athens: University of Georgia Press.Google Scholar
  45. Tomory, Peter. 1975. A Blake Sketch for Hayley’s Ballad “The Lion” and a Connection with Fuseli. The Burlington Magazine 117 (867): 376–378.Google Scholar
  46. Warner, Nicolas O. 1984–1985. Visual Analogues to Blake’s “The Dog”. Blake/An Illustrated Quarterly 18 (3): 140–143.Google Scholar
  47. Warton, Joseph. 1782. An Essay on the Genius and Writings of Pope, 2 vols. London: J. Dodsley.Google Scholar
  48. Wollstonecraft, Mary. 1788. Original Stories from Real Life. London: J. Johnson.Google Scholar
  49. Wood, Marcus. 1990. A Caricature Source for One of Blake’s Illustrations to Hayley’s Ballads. Blake/An Illustrated Quarterly 24 (1): 247–248.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Kansas State UniversityManhattanUSA

Personalised recommendations