Immediate Skin Contact Reactions Induced by Proteins

  • Kayria MuttardiEmail author
  • Emek Kocatürk
Part of the Updates in Clinical Dermatology book series (UCD)


Proteins may cause two main types of immediate skin reactions, namely, contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis. Contact urticaria presents with a wheal and flare reaction that occurs within 30 min of direct contact of the protein and resolves completely within hours. Protein contact dermatitis manifests as an eczematous rash that appears rapidly after contact with the protein. Other symptoms such as angioedema, rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, gut symptoms, oral allergy syndrome, and even anaphylaxis may occur. Among the proteins that cause immediate reactions, latex is the most commonly encountered, which explains why the number one affected occupation is healthcare workers, followed by hairdressers and veterinarians. Other proteins that may be capable of inducing these types of reactions are grouped into four types: (1) fruits, vegetables, spices, plants and woods, (2) animal proteins, (3) grains, and (4) enzymes. Food handlers, those working in agriculture, farming, floriculture, and bakery, as well as hunters and biologists, are other occupations involved. The gold standard for diagnosis is skin prick testing, and management is aimed at avoiding the responsible allergen.


Contact urticaria Protein contact dermatitis Latex allergy Immediate skin reactions Contact urticaria syndrome Management Diagnosis 


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of DermatologyWest Hertfordshire NHS TrustHertfordshireUK
  2. 2.Department of DermatologyOkmeydanı Training and Research HospitalİstanbulTurkey

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