Archean TTG Magmatism in the Aravalli Craton, NW India: Petrogenetic and Geodynamic Constraints

  • Iftikhar AhmadEmail author
  • M. E. A. Mondal
  • M. Satyanarayanan
Part of the Society of Earth Scientists Series book series (SESS)


The Archean Banded Gneissic Complex (BGC) of the Aravalli Craton (NW India) is volumetrically most important basement complex scattered along the northwestern margin of the Indian craton. It is mainly comprised of grey gneisses, undeformed granitoids and volcano-sedimentary sequence. Amongst various lithocomponents, the grey gneisses represent the oldest component of the BGC. Rock association comprising tonalite, trondhjemite and granodiorite (TTG) form a major component of the grey gneisses. Geochemically, the TTG are essentially sodic in nature (avg. K2O/Na2O  =  0.31) and characterized by high Al2O3 (avg. 15.5 wt%), Na2O (avg. 5.3 wt%) and Sr (avg. 413 ppm), and low Y (avg. 10 ppm) contents. They are characterized by enrichment of large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and light rare earth element (LREE) contents. On chondrite- and primitive mantle normalized trace element diagrams, the TTG exhibit: (i) highly fractionated rare earth element (REE) patterns; and (ii) negative anomalies of Nb and Ti. These geochemical characteristics of the TTG suggest that they were not produced from partial melting of mid-oceanic ridge basalts/normal oceanic crust. Instead we propose that the TTG rocks of the Aravalli Craton were formed by partial melting of an enriched source (oceanic plateau) in a subduction setting; with melting taking place at variable depths.


TTG Aravalli Craton Indian shield Geochemistry Geodynamics Crustal evolution 



Authors wish to thank the Chairperson, Department of Geology, A.M.U., Aligarh, the Director, CSIR-National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad and the Director General, Geological Survey of India (GSI), Ministry of Mines, Government of India for extending facilities to take up this work. IA and MEAM thank Mr. Syed Ali Imam Mujtaba (Superintending Geologist), Dr. Vikas Bhardwaj (Senior Chemist) and Mr. Mohd. Sadiq (Senior Geologist) of the GSI, Faridabad for their help and support in the preparation of samples for analysis. IA is thankful to the University Grants Commission, India for the award of Senior Research Fellowship. Editorial board and three reviewers (Prof. Somnath Dasgupta, Prof. N. V. Chalapathi Rao and Dr. Milan Kohut) are thanked for their critical suggestions that helped improve the manuscript substantially.


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Authors and Affiliations

  • Iftikhar Ahmad
    • 1
    Email author
  • M. E. A. Mondal
    • 1
  • M. Satyanarayanan
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of GeologyAligarh Muslim UniversityAligarhIndia
  2. 2.CSIR-National Geophysical Research InstituteHyderabadIndia

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