Advertisement

Occurrence of Tidalites in the Mesoproterozoic Subtidal-Intertidal Flat, Lalsot Sub-basin, North Delhi Fold Belt, Rajasthan, India

  • Biplab BhattacharyaEmail author
  • Malini Chakraborty
  • Sunil Kumar Sharma
Chapter
Part of the Society of Earth Scientists Series book series (SESS)

Abstract

The Mesoproterozoic Bayana Formation (Alwar Group) in the Lalsot sub-basin, North Delhi Fold Belt, NW India, is represented by (i) conglomerate-rich alluvial fan-braided river deposits near the lower part, followed by (ii) reworked conglomerate-sandstone deposits with significant tidal influences in the middle part and (iii) predominant tide-wave influenced marginal marine deposits in the upper part, in an overall fining-up succession. Tidalites are well-preserved in the upper part of the siliciclastic Bayana succession, and are reported here as one of the oldest records of tidal depositional systems within the Aravalli cratonic area, NW India. Tidalites are represented by tidal bundles, tidal beddings and tidal rhythmites. Tidal bundles, associated with reactivation surfaces indicating time–velocity asymmetry, sigmoidal bundles, herring-bone cross-strata, are abundant in sand-dominated facies succession formed in subtidal condition. Tidal beddings and tidal rhythmites are preserved in mud-dominated facies successions and are commonly associated with asymmetric/symmetric ripple forms, and desiccation cracks, indicating intertidal flat depositional setting. Time-series analysis of continuous rhythmic foreset bundles manifests neap–spring tidal cycles with synodic month lengths of ~27.4 lunar days. Systematic analysis of the architecture of the tidalites signifies rapid shift in sedimentation from subtidal to intertidal flat in a meso- to macro-tidal setting. Transition from immature fan-fluvial depositional system in the basal part to matured subtidal-intertidal system in the upper part of the overall retrogradational Bayana succession signifies base level change under the influence of sea level fluctuations and/or basinal subsidence in the Mesoproterozoic Lalsot sub-basin.

Keywords

Mesoproterozoic Tidalites Subtidal-intertidal flats Bayana formation Alwar group Lalsot sub-basin North Delhi Fold Belt 

Notes

Acknowledgements

B. Bhattacharya is grateful to Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, for financial assistance in the form of FIG Scheme (No. ESD/FIG/100620) for this work. Authors are indebted to constructive suggestions and comments made by Dr. N. Absar and other three anonymous reviewers, which have improved the clarity of the manuscript. B. Bhattacharya expresses his sincere thanks to Prof. M. E. A. Mondal of Aligarh Muslim University, for this unique endeavour, his invitation and kind support throughout. B. Bhattacharya is also thankful to his M. Sc. and M. Tech Dissertation students, particularly Shubham Bose, Agnidipto Basu and Shaswata Sinha, for their assistances during the fieldwork.

References

  1. Allen, J. R. L. (1981). Lower cretaceous tides revealed by cross-bedding with mud drapes. Nature, 289, 579–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen, J. R. L. (1982). Mud drapes in sand-wave deposits: A physical model with application to the Folkestone beds (Early Cretaceous, Southeast England). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A Mathematical Physical Sciences, 306, 291–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Archer, A. W., & Johnson, T. W. (1997). Modelling of cyclic tidal rhythmites (Carboniferous of Indiana and Kansas, Precambrian of Utah, USA) as a basis for reconstruction of intertidal positioning and palaeotidal regimes. Sedimentology, 44, 991–1010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bhattacharya, B., Bandyopadhyay, S., Mahapatra, S., & Banerjee, S. (2012). Record of tidewave influence on the coal-bearing Permian Barakar Formation, Raniganj Basin, India. Sedimentary Geology, 267–268, 25–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bhattacharya, B., & Banerjee, P. P. (2015). Record of Permian Tethyan transgression in eastern India: A reappraisal of the Barren measures formation, West Bokaro Coalfield. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 67, 170–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bhattacharya, B., & Jha, S. (2014). Late Cretaceous diurnal tidal system: A study from Nimar Sandstone, Bagh Group, Narmada Valley, Central India. Current Science, 107(6), 1032–1037.Google Scholar
  7. Bhattacharya, H. N. (1991). An appraisal of the depositional environment of the Precambrian metasediments around Ghatshila-Galudih, eastern Singhbhum. Journal Geological Society of India, 37, 47–54.Google Scholar
  8. Bhattacharya, H. N., & Bhattacharya, B. (2005). Storm event beds in a paleoproterozoic rift basin, Aravalli Supergroup, Rajasthan, India. Gondwana Research, 8, 231–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bhattacharya, H. N., & Bhattacharya, B. (2006). A Permo-Carboniferous tide-storm interactive system: Talchir Formation, Raniganj Basin, India. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 27, 303–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bhattacharya, H. N., Bhattacharya, B., Pal, S., & Roy, A. (2015). Late Archaean tidalites from western margin of Chitradurga greenstone belt, southern India. Precambrian Research, 257, 109–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Biju-Sekhar, S., Yokoyama, K., Pandit, M. K., Okudaira, T., Yoshida, M., & Santosh, M. (2003). Late Paleoproterozoic magmatism in Delhi Fold Belt, NW India and its implication: Evidence from EPMA chemical ages of zircons. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 22, 189–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boersma, J. R. (1969). Internal structure of some tidal mega-ripples on a shoal in the Westerschelde estuary, The Netherlands. Report of a preliminary investigation. Geologie en Mijnbouw, 48, 408–414.Google Scholar
  13. Boersma, J. R., & Terwindt, J. H. J. (1981). Neap-spring tide sequences of intertidal shoal deposits in a mesotidal estuary. Sedimentology, 28, 151–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bose, P. K., Mazumder, R., & Sarkar, S. (1997). Tidal sandwaves and related storm deposits in the transgressive Protoproterozoic Chaibasa Formation, India. Precambrian Research, 84(1–2), 63–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chan, M. A., Kvale, E. P., Archer, A. W., & Sonett, C. P. (1994). Oldest direct evidence of lunar–solar tidal forcing encoded in sedimentary rhythmites, Proterozoic Big Cottonwood Formation, central Utah. Geology, 22, 791–794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Choi, K., & Kim, D. H. (2016). Morphologic and hydrodynamic controls on the occurrence of tidal bundles in an open-coast macrotidal environment, northern Gyeonggi Bay, west coast of Korea. Sedimentary Geology, 339, 68–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Choudhary, A. K., Gopalan, K., & Sastry, C. A. (1984). Present status of the geochronology of the Precambrian rocks of Rajasthan. Tectonophysics, 105, 131–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dalrymple, R. W., & Choi, K. (2007). Morphologic and facies trends through the fluvial–marine transition in tide-dominated depositional system: A schematic for environmental and sequence stratigraphic interpretation. Earth-Science Reviews, 81, 135–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Eriksson, K. A., & Simpson, E. L. (2000). Quantifying the oldest tidal record: The 3.2 Ga Moodies Group, Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. Geology, 28, 831–834.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fan, D. D. (2013). Classifications, sedimentary features and facies associations of tidal flats. Journal of Palaeogeography, 2(1), 66–80.Google Scholar
  21. Greb, S. F., Archer, A. W., & Deboer, D. G. (2011). Apogean–perigean signals encoded in tidal flats at the fluvio-estuarine transition of Glacier Creek, Turnagain Arm, Alaska; implications for ancient tidal rhythmites. Sedimentology, 58, 1434–1452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Guha, A. (2009). Satellite based observations on the deformation pattern in parts of Delhi Fold Belt, Jaipur, Rajasthan. Journal of the Geological Society of India, 74, 445–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kaur, P., Zeh, A., Chaudri, N., Gerdes, A., & Okrusch, M. (2011). Archaean to Palaeo-proterozoic crustal evolution of the Aravalli mountain range, NW India, and its hinterland: The U-Pb and Hf isotope record of detrital zircon. Precambrian Research, 187, 155–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Klein, G. deV. (1970). Depositional and dispersal dynamics of intertidal sand bars. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 40, 1095–1127.Google Scholar
  25. Klein, G. deV. (1971). A sedimentary model for determining paleotidal range. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 82, 2585–2592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kvale, E. P. (2006). The origin of neap-spring tidal cycles. Marine Geology, 235, 5–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kvale, E. P. (2012). Tidal constituents of modern and ancient tidal rhythmites: Criteria for recognition and analyses. In R. A. Davis Jr. & R. W. Dalrymple (Eds.), Principles of tidal sedimentology (pp. 1–16). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  28. Mazumder, R. (2004). Implications of lunar orbital periodicity from the Chaibasa tidal rhythmite (India) of late Palaeoproterozoic age. Geology, 32, 841–844.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. McKenzie, N. R., Hughes, N. C., Myrow, P. M., Banerjee, D. M., Deb, M., & Planavsky, N. J. (2013). New age constraints for the Proterozoic Aravalli-Delhi successions of India and their implications. Precambrian Research, 238, 120–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nio, S. D., Siegenthaler, C., & Yang, C. S. (1983). Megraripple cross-bedding as a tool for the reconstruction of the paleo-hydraulics in a Holocene subtidal environment, S.W. Netherlands. Geologie en Mijnbouw, 62, 499–510.Google Scholar
  31. Reineck, H. E., & Singh, I. B. (1980). Depositional sedimentary environments. Berlin: Springer. 549p.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Saikia, C., Ahmad, A. H. M., & Wasim, S. M. (2011). Facies controlled diagenetic evolution of the Delhi Group Sandstones, Bayana Basin, Rajasthan. Journal of the Geological Society of India, 77, 261–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Shukla, T., & Shukla, U. K. (2013). Tidal bundles: An evidence of mixed tidal regime in scarp sandstone formation of the proterozoic Kaimur Group, Vindhyan Basin, Mirzapur District, (Uttar Pradesh), India. Gondwana Geological Magazine, 28(2), 93–99.Google Scholar
  34. Singh, S. P. (1985). Fluvial and tidal sedimentation in the Proterozoic Alwar Group, Bayana Sub-basin, Bharatpur District, Rajasthan. Records of the Geological Survey of India, 116, 89–101.Google Scholar
  35. Singh, S. P. (1988). Stratigraphy and sedimentation pattern in the Proterozoic Delhi Supergroup, northwestern India. Memoirs Geological Society of India, 7, 193–205.Google Scholar
  36. Visser, M. J. (1980). Neap–spring cycles reflected in Holocene subtidal large-scale bed form deposits: A preliminary note. Geology, 8, 543–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Williams, G. E. (1989). Late Precambrian tidal rhythmites in South Australia and the history of the earth rotation. Journal of the Geological Society, 146, 97–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Williams, G. E. (2000). Geological constraints on the Precambrian history of Earth’s rotation and the Moon’s orbit. Reviews of Geophysics, 38, 37–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Biplab Bhattacharya
    • 1
    Email author
  • Malini Chakraborty
    • 1
  • Sunil Kumar Sharma
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Earth SciencesIndian Institute of TechnologyRoorkeeIndia
  2. 2.Geological Survey of IndiaBhopalIndia

Personalised recommendations