Advertisement

Shame and Wrong: Is There a Common Morality Among Young People in France, the UK, the Netherlands, Germany, and the USA?

  • Ineke Haen MarshallEmail author
  • Chris E. Marshall
Chapter

Abstract

The chapter analyzes morality as a dependent variable measured by survey responses of some 10,000 children in 7th, 8th, and 9th grade participating in the ISRD3 project in the UK, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the USA. The chapter empirically describes differences and commonalities in the values and norms of native-born pupils and their migrant counterparts, and it tests the hypothesis that the effect of migration status, parents, school, religion, and friends on morality will be similar in France, Germany, the UK, the Netherlands, and the USA. Psychometric analysis of the measures of morality (Pro-Social Values Index and Shame Index) supports cross-national measurement equivalence of the measures. We find broadly similar patterns of morality across these five countries, with some country-level variations in degree of moral consensus across children. Multivariate analysis shows higher levels of morality among girls, lower grades, and those who care about opinion of parents, and teachers, among all five youth samples. Religious affiliation is only of minor importance: Muslim pupils in the Netherlands and the UK score slightly lower on morality scales, but in the US, French, and German samples, this is not the case. The effects of being native-born and first- or second-generation immigrant on morality are weak and inconsistent, suggesting the need for country-specific analysis.

Keywords

Morality Shame Measurement equivalence Religiosity Religion Migrants 

Notes

Acknowledgment

The research used in this publication is supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF)—Grant #1419588.

References

  1. Alexander, M. (2010). The new Jim Crow. Mass incarceration in the age of color blindness. New York: The New Press.Google Scholar
  2. Bader, C. D., & Finke, R. (2010). What does god require? Understanding religious context and morality (pp. 241–254). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  3. Braithwaite, J. (1989). Crime, shame and reintegration. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Catalano, R. F., & Hawkins, J. D. (1996). The social development model: A theory of antisocial behavior. In J. D. Hawkins (Ed.), Delinquency and crime: Current theories (pp. 149–197). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Clay-Warner, J. (2014). Crime and emotions. In J. E. Stets & J. H. Turner (Eds.), Handbook of the sociology of emotions (Vol. II, pp. 473–493). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  6. Cohen, P., Cohen, J., Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. W. (1999). The problem of units and the circumstances for POMP. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 34(3), 315–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Covaleskie, J. F. (2013). Membership and moral formation: Shame as an educational and social emotion. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
  8. Elster, J. (2007). Explaining social behavior: More nuts and bolts for the social sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Enzmann, D. (2017). How to deal with tricky data. ISRD Meeting. Amersfoort, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  10. Enzmann, D., Kivivuori, J., Marshall, I. H., Steketee, M., Hough, M., & Killias, M. (2018). A global perspective on young people as offenders and victims. First results of the ISRD3 study. Cham: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Esmer, Y. R., & Pettersson, T. (2007). Measuring and mapping cultures: 25 years of comparative values surveys. Brill: Leiden and Boston.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Harkness, S. K., & Hitlin, S. (2014). Morality and emotions. In J. E. Stets & J. H. Turner (Eds.), Handbook of the sociology of emotions (Vol. II, pp. 451–471). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  13. Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of delinquency. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  14. Hitlin, S., & Vaisey, S. (2013). The new sociology of morality. Annual Review of Sociology, 39(1), 51–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Holdcroft, B. (2006). What is Religiosity? Catholic Education: A Journal of Inquiry and Practice, 10(1), 89–103.Google Scholar
  16. Jennings, P. L., Mitchell, M. S., & Hannah, S. T. (2015). The moral self: A review and integration of the literature. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36(S1), S104–S168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lamont, M. (2006). Culture and identity. In J. H. Turner (Ed.), Handbook of sociological theory (pp. 171–186). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  18. Marshall, I. H. (1997). Minorities, migrants and crime. Diversity and similarity across Europe and the United States. Thousand Oaks: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Marshall, I. H., & Enzmann, D. (2012). Methodology and design of the ISRD-2 study. In J. Junger-Tas, I. H. Marshall, D. Enzmann, M. Killias, M. Steketee, & B. Gruszczynska (Eds.), The many faces of youth crime. Contrasting theoretical perspectives on juvenile delinquency across countries and cultures (pp. 21–68). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  20. Martinez, R., Stowell, J., & Iwama, J. (2016). The role of immigration: Race/ethnicity and San Diego homicides since 1970. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 32, 471–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Messner, S. F. (2012). Morality, markets, and the asc: 2011 presidential address to the American Society of Criminology. Criminology, 50(1), 5–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pew Research Center. (2014). Methodology: global religious diversity index (RDI). Religion and public life Retrieved November 1, 2017, from http://www.pewforum.org/2014/04/04/methodology-2/
  23. Rebellon, C. J., Piquero, N. L., Piquero, A. R., & Tibbetts, S. G. (2010). Anticipated shaming and criminal offending. Journal of Criminal Justice, 38(5), 988–997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sampson, R. (2008). Rethinking crime and immigration. Context Winter, 7, 28–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sewell, W. H. (1992). A theory of structure: Duality, agency, and transformation. American Journal of Sociology, 98(1), 1–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Svensson, R., Pauwels, L. J. R., & Weerman, F. M. A. G. J. N. B. (2017). Explaining individual changes in moral values and moral emotions among adolescent boys and girls: A fixed-effects analysis. European Journal of Criminology, 14(3), 290–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Svensson, R., Weerman, F. M., Pauwels, L., Bruinsma, G., & Bernasco, W. (2013). Moral emotions and offending: Do feelings of anticipated shame and guilt mediate the effect of socialization on offending? European Journal of Criminology, 10(1), 22–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Tangney, J. P., & Dearing, R. L. (2002). Shame and guilt. New York: Guilford Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Tangney, J. P., Stuewig, J., & Martinez, A. G. (2014). Two faces of shame: The roles of shame and guilt in predicting recidivism. Psychological Science, 25(3), 799–805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Thornberry, T. P. (1987). Toward an interactional theory of delinquency. Criminology, 25, 863–892.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Vandenberg, R. J., & Lance, C. E. (2000). A review and synthesis of the measurement invariance literature: Suggestions, practices, and recommendations for organizational research. Organizational Research Methods, 3(1), 4–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Warwick, D. P., & Osherson, S. (1973). Comparative research methods. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  33. Wikström, P.-O. H. (2010). Explaining crime as moral actions. In S. Hitlin & S. Vaisey (Eds.), Handbook of the sociology of morality (pp. 211–239). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wikstrom, P. O. H., & Butterworth, D. A. (2006). Adolescent crime. Individual differences and life styles. Devon: Willan.Google Scholar
  35. Wirth, L. (1945). The problem of minority groups. In R. Linton (Ed.), The science of man in the world crisis (pp. 347–372). New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Criminology and Criminal JusticeNortheastern UniversityBostonUSA
  2. 2.School of Criminology and Criminal JusticeUniversity of Nebraska-OmahaOmahaUSA

Personalised recommendations