• Jan LauwereynsEmail author


Anyone involved in animal research knows the three R’s—Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement. Russell and Burch introduced these groundbreaking principles more than sixty years ago; now, it is time for a reassessment with the aim of improving the ways in which we conduct animal research. The opening chapter lays out the basic premise and perspectives of the book, with brief previews of the chapters.


Animal research Animal ethics Guiding principles 


  1. Russell, W. M. S., & Burch, R. L. (1959/1992). The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. Wheathampstead: Universities Federation for Animal Welfare. Available at: ALTWEB:
  2. Sandel, M. J. (2009). Justice: What’s the Right Thing to Do. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Kyushu UniversityFukuokaJapan

Personalised recommendations