The Euro-Atlantic Security System in the 1990s

  • Ryszard ZiębaEmail author
Part of the Global Power Shift book series (GLOBAL)


This chapter gives a description and the background for the Euro-Atlantic security system as it emerged after the Cold War and its functioning for about a decade. It shows the genesis of the system; and how it came to include the new Central European democracies, which were admitted to NATO and the European Union; and the cooperation of all the system’s members based on the concept of cooperative security. The evolution of the Euro-Atlantic security system in the nineties produced an asymmetry of security—greater in its western part and weaker in its eastern one. Russia was the weaker partner and agreed to cooperate with the West, but raised reservations about the expansion of its multilateral structures, especially NATO, in which it saw a potentially threatening political and military bloc with a Cold War pedigree.


  1. Andor, L. (1996). Economic transformation and political stability in East Central Europe. Security Dialogue, 27(2), 207–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baldwin, D. A. (Ed.). (1993). Neorealism and neoliberalism: The contemporary debate. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Betts, R. K. (1992). Systems for peace or causes of war?: Collective security, arms control, and the new Europe. International Security, 17(1), 5–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blank, S. (1994). The return of the repressed? Post-1989 nationalism in the «New» Eastern Europe. Nationalities Papers, 22(2), 405–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bombik, S., Samson, I. (1995). Bezpečnostné perspektívy strednej Eúropy: pohlad zo Slovenska, Mezinárodní vztahy, 30(2), 24–31.Google Scholar
  6. Boyer, M. A. (1993). International cooperation and public goods: Opportunities for the Western alliance. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University.Google Scholar
  7. Bremmer, I., & Bailes, A. (1998). Sub-regionalism in the newly independent states. International Affairs, 74(1), 131–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brenner, M. (1995). The multilateral moment. In M. Brenner (Ed.), Multilateralism and western strategy. New York: St. Martin’s Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brzezinski, Z. (2004). The choice, global domination or global leadership. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  10. Bull, H. (1995). The anarchical society: A study of order in world politics. Basingstoke: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  11. Chalmers, M. (1990). Beyond the alliance system. World Policy Journal, 7(2), 215–250.Google Scholar
  12. Cottey, A. (Ed.). (1999). Subregional cooperation in the New Europe: Building security, prosperity and solidarity from the barents to the black sea. Basingstoke: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  13. Craig, G. A., & George, A. L. (1995). Force and statecraft: Diplomatic problems of our time. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  14. CSCE Helsinki Document 1992. The challenges of change, CSCE, Helsinki, July 9–10, 1992.Google Scholar
  15. Dahrendorf, R. (1990). Reflections on the revolutions in Europe: In a letter intended to have been sent to a gentleman in Warsaw. New York: Times Books.Google Scholar
  16. Dean, J. (1994). Ending Europe’s wars: The continuing search for peace and security. New York: A Twentieth Century Fund Press.Google Scholar
  17. Declaration of the Heads of State and Government participating in the meeting of the North Atlantic Council, Brussels, May 29–30, 1989.Google Scholar
  18. Edmonds, J. (1994). A complete nuclear test ban—Why has it taken? Security Dialogue, 25(4), 375–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Final document of the fourth meeting of the csce council of ministers, CSCE, Rome, November 30—December 1, 1993.Google Scholar
  20. Flynn, G., & Scheffer, D. J. (1990). Limited collective security. Foreign Policy, 80, 77–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fukuyama, F. (1991/92). Democratization and international security. Adelphi Papers, 32, 266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fukuyama, F. (1992). The end of history and the last man. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  23. Fülöp, M. (1994). La politique étrangère hongroise dans le contexte de l’Europe central. Politique étrangère, 59(1), 115–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Garton Ash, T. (1994). Germany’s choice. Foreign Affairs, 73(4), 65–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ghebali, V. I., Sauerwein, B. (1995). European security in the 1990s: Challenges and perspectives (pp. 30–34). New York: UNIDIR, United Nations.Google Scholar
  26. Glaser, Ch. L. (1993). Why NATO is still best? Future security arrangements for Europe. International Security, 18(1), 5–50.Google Scholar
  27. Goldgeier, J. M., & McFaul, M. (1992). A tale of two worlds: Periphery in the post-cold war era. International Organization, 46(2), 467–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Grudziński, P. (2008). Państwo inteligentne. Polska w poszukiwaniu międzynarodowej roli. Toruń: Adam Marszałek.Google Scholar
  29. Handel, M. (1981). Weak states in the international system. London: Frank Cass.Google Scholar
  30. Handl, V. (1993). Germany and central Europe: Mitteleuropa restored? Perspectives: Review of Central European Affairs, (Prague), 1, 45–51.Google Scholar
  31. Hansen, E. (Ed.). (1997). Cooperation in the Baltic Region, the Barents Region and the Black Sea Region, (FAFO Paper No. 4), Oslo: Oslo University: Norwegian Institute for Applied Social Science.Google Scholar
  32. Harries, O. (1993). The collapse of the West. Foreign Affairs, 72(4), 41–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hellemann, G., & Wolf, R. (1993). Neorealism, neoliberal institutionalism and the future of NATO. Security Studies, 3(1), 3–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hey, J. A. K. (Ed.). (2003). Small states in word politics: Explaining foreign policy behavior. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
  35. Hickman, W. F. (1993). NATO: Is it worth the trouble? Naval War College Review, XLVI(3). Sequence, 343, 36–46.Google Scholar
  36. Holbraad, C. (1971). The role of middle powers. Cooperation and Conflict, 6(1), 77–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Holbraad, C. (1984). Middle powers in international politics. New York: St Martin’s Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Huntington, S. P. (1993). The clash of civilizations? Foreign Affairs, 72(3), 22–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hyde-Price, A. G. V. (1991). European security beyond the cold war: Four scenarios for the year 2000. London: SAGE Publications for RIIA.Google Scholar
  40. Ikenberry, J. (2010). Liberal leviathan: The origins, crisis, and transformation of the American world order. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Itzkowitz Shifrinson, J. R. (2016). Deal or no deal? The end of cold war and the u.s. offer to limit NATO expansion. International Security, 40(4), 7–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Joffe, J. (1992). Collective security and the future of Europe: Failed dreams and dead ends. Survival, 34(1), 36–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Johnson, L., & Archer, C. (Eds.). (1996). Peacekeeping and the role of Russia in Eurasia. Boulder CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  44. Johnson, R. (1996). The in-comprehensive test ban. Bulletin of the atomic scientists, 52(6), 30–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jowitt, K. (1992). New world disorder—The leninist extinction. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  46. Kaczmarski, M. (2008). Problematyka zbrojeń i rozbrojenia. In R. Zięba (Ed.), Bezpieczeństwo międzynarodowe po zimnej wojnie (pp. 520–546). Warsaw: Wydawnictwa Akademickie i Profesjonalne.Google Scholar
  47. Kaldor, M., & Vejvoda, I. (1997). Democratization in central and east European countries. International Affairs, 73(1), 59–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kapuśniak, T. (2005). Struktura reżimu o rozbrojeniu konwencjonalnym w Europie (CFE). Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Skłodowska (Lublin—Polonia), XII(Sectio K), 75–98.Google Scholar
  49. Keohane, R. O. (1969). Lilliputians’ dilemmas: Small states in international politics. International Organization, 23(2), 291–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Klieman, A. (2015). Great powers and geopolitics: International affairs in a rebalancing world. Heidelberg: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kobrinskaya, I. (1996). Russia and UN peacekeeping. In G. Flikke (Ed.), Russia and international peacekeeping. (NUPI Report, No. 206). (p. 6–24). Oslo: NUPI.Google Scholar
  52. Koszel, B. (1999). Mitteleuropa rediviva? Europa Środkowo- i Południowo-Wschodnia w polityce zjednoczonych Niemiec. Poznań: Instytut Zachodni.Google Scholar
  53. Krauthammer, Ch. (1990/1991). The unipolar moment. Foreign Affairs, 70(1), 23–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kupchan, Ch. A. (1996). Reviving the west: For an Atlantic union. Foreign Affairs, 75(3), 92–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kupchan, Ch A, & Kupchan, C. A. (1991). Concerts, collective security, and the future of Europe. International Security, 16(1), 114–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lachowski, Z. (1996). Conventional arms control and security cooperation in Europe, SIPRI Yearbook 1996 (pp. 709-739). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Layne, C. (1994). Kant or Cant: The myth of the democratic peace. International Security, 9(2), 5–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lellouche, P. (1992). La France et l’Otan, quel avenir? Relations internationales et stratégiques, 7, 90–98.Google Scholar
  59. Líska, L. (1993). Německo jako problém evropské polityky. In A. Ort et al. (Ed.), Česká republika v měnící se Evropě. Sborník statí (pp. 101–104). Praha: Středisko mezinárodních studií Jana Masaryka.Google Scholar
  60. London Declaration on a Transformed North Atlantic Alliance. NATO Press Communiqué, S-1(90)36, July 6, 1990.Google Scholar
  61. Mansfield, E. D., & Snyder, J. (1995). Democratization and the danger of war. International Security, 20(1), 5–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Marantz, P. J. (1997). Neither adversaries Nor partners: Russia and the West search for a new relationship. In R. E. Kanet & A. V. Kozhemiankin (Eds.), The foreign policy of the Russian federation (pp. 78–101). Basingstoke: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mastanduno, M. (1997). Preserving the unipolar moment: Realist theories and U.S. grand strategy after the cold war. International Security, 21(4), 49–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mathers, J. G. (1996). Russian national security policy after the cold war. In M. J. Davis (Ed.), Security issues in the post-Cold War world (pp. 40–56). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  65. Mearsheimer, J. J. (1990). Back to the future: Instability in Europe after the Cold War. International Security, 15(1), 5–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Meric, Ch. (1996). Bilan du processus du désarmement conventionel en Europe (p. 320). In Memento défense-désarmement 1995/96. L’Europe et la sécurité internationale, Bruxelles: GRIP.Google Scholar
  67. Message From Turnberry, Ministerial Meeting of the North Atlantic Council, June 7–8, 1990.Google Scholar
  68. Mihalka, M. (1996). A marriage of convenience: The OSCE and Russia in Nagorny-Karabakh and Chechnya. Helsinki Monitor, 7(2), 13–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Morgan, T. C., & Howard Campbell, S. (1991). Domestic structure, decisional constraints, and war. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 35(2), 187–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Muravchik, J. (1992). Exporting democracy: Fulfilling America’s destiny. Washington DC: A.E.I.Google Scholar
  71. Nelson, D. N. (1993). Democracy, markets and security in Eastern Europe. Survival, 35(2), 156–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Nodia, G. (1992). Nationalism and democracy. Journal of Democracy, III(4), 3–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Organski, A. F. K. (1958). World politics. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.Google Scholar
  74. Owen, J. M. (1994). How liberalism produces democratic peace. International Security, 9(2), 87–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Özer, E. (1997). The black sea economic cooperation and regional security. Perceptions, II(3), 76–106.Google Scholar
  76. Partnership with the Countries of Central and Eastern Europe, Statement issued by the North Atlantic Council Meeting in Ministerial Session in Copenhagen 6–7 June 1991. NATO Press Communiqué, M-1(91)42, June 6, 1991.Google Scholar
  77. Perle, R. N. (Ed.). (1991). Reshaping western security: The United States faces a United Europe. Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute.Google Scholar
  78. Pick, O. (1995). Středni Evropa padesát let posle druhé světové válce. Mezinárodní vztahy, 30(2), 5–9.Google Scholar
  79. Rimanelli, M. (1995). East-west arms control and the fall of the USSR, 1967–1994: Radical change or expedient accommodation? East European Quarterly, 29(2), 237–274.Google Scholar
  80. Robertson, J. (2017). Middle-power definitions: Confusions reign supreme. Australian Journal of International Affairs, 71(4), 355–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Rome Declaration on Peace and Cooperation, NATO Press Communiqué S-1(91)86, November 8, 1991.Google Scholar
  82. Romer, J-Ch. (1992). Une armée russe: quelle armée? Politique étrangère, 1, 63–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Rothstein, R. (1968). Alliances and small powers. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  84. Rühe, V. (1993). Shaping euro-Atlantic policy. Survival, 35(2), 129–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Rusi, A. M. (1991). After the cold war: Europe’s New political architecture. New York: St. Martin’s Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Russett, B. (1993). Grasping the democratic peace: Principles for a post-cold war world. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  87. Schmitter, P. C., Karl, T. (1992). The types of democracy emerging in southern and eastern Europe and south and Central America. In P. M. E. Volten (Ed.), Bound to change: Consolidating democracy in east Central Europe (pp. 42–68). New York, Prague: Institute for EastWest Studies.Google Scholar
  88. Schöpflin, G. (1994). The rise of anti-democratic movements in post-communist societies. In H. Miall (Ed.), Redefining Europe: New patterns of conflict and cooperation (pp. 129–146). London: Pinter Publishers for RIIA.Google Scholar
  89. Shashenkov, M. (1994). Russian peace-keeping in the ‘near abroad’. Survival, 36(3), 46–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sheehan, M. (1996). The balance of power: History and theory. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Socor, V. (1991, May 3). The romanian-soviet friendship treaty and its regional implications. Report on Eastern Europe, 25–33.Google Scholar
  92. Souchon, L. (1993). Die Renaissance Europas—Europäische Sicherheitspolitik—Ein internationales Modell. Berlin: Verlag E.S. Mittler & Sohn GmbH.Google Scholar
  93. Spiezio, K. E. (1994). Beyond containment: Reconstructing European security. Boulder CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
  94. Spiro, D. E. (1994). The insignificance of the liberal peace. International Security, 9(2), 50–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Stolarczyk, M. (1995). Podział i zjednoczenie Niemiec jako elementy ładów europejskich po drugiej wojnie światowej. Katowice: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego.Google Scholar
  96. Szulc, T. (1996). Unpleasant truths about eastern Europe. Foreign Policy, 102, 52–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Taylor, B. D. (1994). Russian civil-military relations after the october uprising. Survival, 36(1), 3–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. The Alliance’s New Strategic Concept. NATO Press Communiqué S-1(91)85, November 7, 1991.Google Scholar
  99. The CTBT: Looking Ahead, (UNIDIR NewsLetter, No. SI 2/96, Special Issue), Geneva: United Nations 1996.Google Scholar
  100. Timerbaev, T. (1994). A hostage to political realities: A russian commentary. Security Dialogue, 25(4), 389–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Tomala, M. (1991). Zjednoczenie Niemiec. Aspekty międzynarodowe i polskie. Warsaw: PISM.Google Scholar
  102. Ullman, R. H. (1990). Enlarging the zone of peace. Foreign Policy, 80, 102–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Ullman, R. H. (1991). Securing Europe. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  104. Umbach, F. (1996). The role and influence of the military establishment in Russia’s foreign and security policies in yeltsin Era. The Journal of Slavic Military Studies, 9(3), 467–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Van Evera, S. (1990/1991). Primed for peace: Europe after the cold war. International Security, 15(3), 7–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Vayrynen, R. (1971). On the definition and measurement of small power status. Cooperation and Conflict, 6(1), 91–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Vukadinović, R. (1997). Postkomunistički izazovi europskoj sigurnosti: od Jadrana do Baltika. Mostar: ZIRAL.Google Scholar
  108. Vystupleniye postoyannogo predstavitelya Rossiyskoy Federatsii pri OON J.M. Vorontsova w Soviete Bezopastnostii. Diplomaticheskiy Vestnik, No. 15–16, August 1994,Google Scholar
  109. Walt, S. M. (1991). Alliances in theory and practice: What lies ahead? In Ch W Kegley & E. R. Wittkopf (Eds.), The global agenda: Issues and perspectives (pp. 189–197). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  110. Walt, S. M. (1996/1997). Rethinking revolution and war. Security Studies, 6(2), 174–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Walt, S. M. (1996). Revolution and War. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  112. Waltz, K. N. (1979). Theory of international politics. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Company.Google Scholar
  113. Wettig, G. (1995). A new types of challenge to European security. Aussenpolitik, 46(II), 136–145.Google Scholar
  114. Wight, M. (1978). Power politics. In H. Bull & C. Holbraad (Eds.), Leister: Leister University Press.Google Scholar
  115. Wiśniewski, B. (2015). Teoria demokratycznego pokoju. In R. Zięba, S. Bieleń, & J. Zając (Eds.), Teorie i podejścia badawcze w nauce o stosunkach międzynarodowych (pp. 47–66). Warsaw: Wydział Dziennikarstwa i Nauk Politycznych UW.Google Scholar
  116. Włodkowska, A. (2004). Mocarstwowość w polityce zagranicznej państw. In R. Zięba (Ed.), Wstęp do teorii polityki zagranicznej (pp. 163–176). Toruń: Adam Marszałek.Google Scholar
  117. Xiang, L. (1992). Is Germany in the Western or in Central Europe? Orbis, 36(3), 411–442.Google Scholar
  118. Zartman, I. W. (2009). Imbalance of power: US hegemony and international order. Boulder, CA: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
  119. Zięba, R. (1992). »Nowy regionalizm« w Europie a Polska. Sprawy Międzynarodowe, 1–2, 25–44.Google Scholar
  120. Zięba, R. (1995). Zjednoczone Niemcy w nowym ładzie europejskim. In K. A. Wojtaszczyk (Ed.), Niemcy po zjednoczeniu (pp. 137–160). Warsaw: Instytut Nauk Politycznych UW.Google Scholar
  121. Zięba, R. (1996). Rola zjednoczonych Niemiec w Europie Środkowej. In K. A. Wojtaszczyk (Ed.), Zjednoczone Niemcy (pp. 130–131). Warsaw: Instytut Nauk Politycznych UW.Google Scholar
  122. Zięba, R. (2004). Instytucjonalizacja bezpieczeństwa europejskiego; koncepcje—struktury—funkcjonowanie. Warsaw: Scholar.Google Scholar
  123. Zięba, R. (2006). Współpraca Francji i Niemiec w kształtowaniu polityki zagranicznej i bezpieczeństwa Unii Europejskiej. Krakowskie Studia Międzynarodowe, III(4), 169–184.Google Scholar
  124. Zięba, A. (2010). Rola Niemiec w rozszerzaniu Unii Europejskiej. Warsaw: Poltext.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Political Science and International StudiesUniversity of WarsawWarsawPoland

Personalised recommendations