Advertisement

Experimental Varicocele

  • Fatima Kazue Okada
  • Renata Cristina de Carvalho
  • Ricardo Pimenta Bertolla
Chapter

Abstract

Varicocele is defined as an abnormal dilatation of the testicular veins in the pampiniform plexus. It has been studied due to its high prevalence in the population and its association to male infertility. However, the study of varicocele in humans is complicated by the presence of comorbidities, lifestyle factors, and use of medications, to name a few examples, all of which potentially interfere with results. The use of experimental models limits or mitigates these effects. Rats have more frequently been used to study experimental varicocele, because their anatomy and physiology are well defined and characterized.

In the day of varicocele induction, the animal is anesthetized, and a dose of analgesic is administrated. Then, the exposition of the left renal vein is performed via abdominal incision. Varicocele induction is then accomplished by partial ligation of the left renal vein with a nonabsorbable polyester/cotton suture. Initial effects of the procedure may be observed few days after the surgery, and final dilatation of the left spermatic vein is observed at around 30 days post-induction. Studies will then need to consider how long they wish for the varicocele to be present, bearing in mind that if one is to study the effect of a full spermatogenic cycle, epididymal transit must be accounted for.

Keywords

Varicocele Experimental Left spermatic vein Left renal vein Sperm Testis Epididymis 

References

  1. 1.
    Gorelick JI, Goldstein M. Loss of fertility in men with varicocele. Fertil Steril. 1993;59(3):613–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Witt MA, Lipshultz LI. Varicocele: a progressive or static lesion? Urology. 1993;42(5):541–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jarow JP, Coburn M, Sigman M. Incidence of varicoceles in men with primary and secondary infertility. Urology. 1996;47(1):73–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Skoog SJ, Roberts KP, Goldstein M, Pryor JL. The adolescent varicocele: what’s new with an old problem in young patients? Pediatrics. 1997;100(1):112–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kass EJ, Reitelman C. Adolescent varicocele. Urol Clin North Am. 1995;22(1):151–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dubin L, Amelar RD. Varicocelectomy: 986 cases in a twelve-year study. Urology. 1977;10(5):446–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Etriby AA, Ibrahim AA, Mahmoud KZ, Elhaggar S. Subfertility and varicocele. I. Venogram demonstration of anastomosis sites in subfertile men. Fertil Steril. 1975;26(10):1013–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Handel LN, Shetty R, Sigman M. The relationship between varicoceles and obesity. J Urol. 2006;176(5):2138–40; discussion 2140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Brugh VM, Matschke HM, Lipshultz LI. Male factor infertility. Endocrinol Metab Clin N Am. 2003;32(3):689–707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Naughton CK, Nangia AK, Agarwal A. Pathophysiology of varicoceles in male infertility. Hum Reprod Update. 2001;7(5):473–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Andersen ML, D’Almeida V, Ko GM, Martins PJF. Chapter 4: Care and maintenance of laboratory animals. In: Rodent model as tools in ethical biomedical research: Springer International Publishing; 2010.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Animals NRC (US) C for the U of the G for the C and U of L. Environment, Housing, and Management [Internet]. National Academies Press (US); 2011 [cited 2018 Sep 28]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK54046/.
  13. 13.
    Li H, Dubocq F, Jiang Y, Tiguert R, Gheiler EL, Dhabuwala CB. Effect of surgically induced varicocele on testicular blood flow and Sertoli cell function. Urology. 1999;53(6):1258–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Marmar JL. The pathophysiology of varicoceles in the light of current molecular and genetic information. Hum Reprod Update. 2001;7(5):461–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Animals NRC (US) C for the U of the G for the C and U of L. Animal Care and Use Program [Internet]. National Academies Press (US); 2011 [cited 2018 Sep 28]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK54045/.
  16. 16.
    National Research Council (US) Committee for the Update of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals [Internet]. 8th ed. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2011 [cited 2018 Sep 28]. (The National Academies Collection: Reports funded by National Institutes of Health). Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK54050/.
  17. 17.
    Dogs NRC (US) C on. Criteria for Selecting Experimental Animals [Internet]. National Academies Press (US); 1994 [cited 2018 Jul 27]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK236591/.
  18. 18.
    Saypol DC, Howards SS, Turner TT, Miller ED. Influence of surgically induced varicocele on testicular blood flow, temperature, and histology in adult rats and dogs. J Clin Invest. 1981;68(1):39–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hassanpour H, Bigham Sadegh A, Karimi I, Heidari Khoei H, Karimi A, Edalati Shaarbaf P, et al. Comparative expression analysis of HSP70, HSP90, IL-4, TNF, KITLG and KIT-receptor gene between varicocele-induced and non-Varicocele testes of dog. Int J Fertil Steril. 2017;11(3):148–55.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Snydle FE, Cameron DF. Surgical induction of varicocele in the rabbit. J Urol. 1983;130(5):1005–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kay R, Alexander NJ, Baugham WL. Induced varicoceles in rhesus monkeys. Fertil Steril. 1979;31(2):195–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Turner TT. The study of varicocele through the use of animal models. Hum Reprod Update. 2001;7(1):78–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Katz MJ, Najari BB, Li PS, Goldstein M. The role of animal models in the study of varicocele. Transl Androl Urol. 2014;3(1):59–63.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Andersen ML, Mazaro e Costa R, Oliveira e Costa MF. Chapter 7: Rats. In: Rodent model as tools in ethical biomedical research: Springer International Publishing.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Animals NRC (US) C for the U of the G for the C and U of L. Veterinary Care [Internet]. National Academies Press (US); 2011 [cited 2018 Sep 28]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK54052/.
  26. 26.
    Rajfer J, Turner TT, Rivera F, Howards SS, Sikka SC. Inhibition of testicular testosterone biosynthesis following experimental varicocele in rats. Biol Reprod. 1987;36(4):933–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ha HK, Park HJ, Park NC. Expression of E-cadherin and α-catenin in a varicocele-induced infertility rat model. Asian J Androl. 2011;13(3):470–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Soares TS, Fernandes SAF, Lima ML, Stumpp T, Schoorlemmer GH, Lazari MFM, et al. Experimental varicocoele in rats affects mechanisms that control expression and function of the androgen receptor. Andrology. 2013;1(5):670–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ozturk U, Kefeli M, Asci R, Akpolat I, Buyukalpelli R, Sarikaya S. The effects of experimental left varicocele on the epididymis. Syst Biol Reprod Med. 2008;54(4–5):177–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Afiyani AA, Deemeh MR, Tavalaee M, Razi M, Bahadorani M, Shokrollahi B, et al. Evaluation of heat-shock protein A2 (HSPA2) in male rats before and after varicocele induction. Mol Reprod Dev. 2014;81(8):766–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Köksal T, Erdoğru T, Toptaş B, Gülkesen KH, Usta M, Baykal A, et al. Effect of experimental varicocele in rats on testicular oxidative stress status. Andrologia. 2002;34(4):242–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Razi M, Sadrkhanloo R-A, Malekinejad H, Sarafzadeh-Rezaei F. Varicocele time-dependently affects DNA integrity of sperm cells: evidence for lower in vitro fertilization rate in varicocele-positive rats. Int J Fertil Steril. 2011;5(3):174–85.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Missassi G, Dos Santos Borges C, de Lima Rosa J, Villela E Silva P, da Cunha Martins A, Barbosa F, et al. Chrysin administration protects against oxidative damage in Varicocele-induced adult rats. Oxidative Med Cell Longev. 2017;2017:2172981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Alizadeh R, Navid S, Abbasi N, Yari A, Mazaheri Z, Daneshi E, et al. The effect of aminoguanidine on sperm motility and mitochondrial membrane potential in varicocelized rats. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2016;19(12):1279–84.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Mendes TB, Paccola CC, de Oliveira Neves FM, Simas JN, da Costa Vaz A, Cabral REL, et al. Resveratrol improves reproductive parameters of adult rats varicocelized in peripuberty. Reproduction. 2016;152(1):23–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Peng BC, Tomashefsky P, Nagler HM. The cofactor effect: varicocele and infertility. Fertil Steril. 1990;54(1):143–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Emery BR, Sun Y, Carrell DT. Combined effects of the experimental left varicocele and lead or nicotine on the rat testis. Fertil Steril. 2007;88:S50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fatima Kazue Okada
    • 1
  • Renata Cristina de Carvalho
    • 1
  • Ricardo Pimenta Bertolla
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Surgery, Division of UrologySao Paulo Federal UniversitySao PauloBrazil

Personalised recommendations