Scrotal Hyperthermia, Hormonal Disturbances, Testicular Hypoperfusion, and Backflow of Toxic Metabolites in Varicocele

  • Ahmad Majzoub
  • Chak-Lam Cho
  • Ashok Agarwal
  • Sandro C. Esteves


Numerous studies have explored the pathophysiology of varicocele as it is recognized as an important factor contributing to male infertility. The focus of these studies is to understand the impact of varicocele on testicular function. Among the most common investigated pathophysiologies in literature were testicular hyperthermia, hormonal disturbances, testicular hypoperfusion, and backflow of toxic metabolites. The focus of this chapter is to thoroughly assess the mechanisms linking varicocele to male infertility.


Varicocele Male infertility Pathophysiology 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmad Majzoub
    • 1
  • Chak-Lam Cho
    • 2
  • Ashok Agarwal
    • 3
  • Sandro C. Esteves
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of UrologyHamad Medical Corporation, Weill Cornell Medicine QatarDohaQatar
  2. 2.S.H. Ho Urology Centre, Department of SurgeryPrince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong KongShatinHong Kong
  3. 3.American Center for Reproductive Medicine, Department of UrologyCleveland ClinicClevelandUSA
  4. 4.ANDROFERT, Andrology & Human Reproduction ClinicCampinasBrazil

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