Imaging and Other Diagnostic Modalities in Varicocele Diagnosis

  • Muhannad M. AlsyoufEmail author
  • Phillip K. Stokes
  • Edmund Y. Ko


The diagnosis of varicocele is generally based on medical history and clinical examination. Imaging modalities have been used as an adjunct to confirm or clarify the diagnosis in situations where history and clinical examination are indeterminate. Treatment of clinically nonpalpable varicoceles, that is, those only diagnosed on imaging, has shown no benefit in improving fertility rates and is not recommended in guidelines. This has led to a limited role for imaging in the investigation of subclinical varicoceles. Technological advances in available imaging studies may potentially expand the role of imaging in the diagnosis and treatment of varicoceles. This chapter provides a review of the available imaging modalities for varicoceles.


Varicocele Infertility Imaging Ultrasound Magnetic Resonance Imaging Computerized Tomography Venography Thermography Scintigraphy 



Computed tomography


Magnetic resonance imaging


Diffusion-weighted imaging


Apparent diffusion coefficient




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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhannad M. Alsyouf
    • 1
    Email author
  • Phillip K. Stokes
    • 1
  • Edmund Y. Ko
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of UrologyLoma Linda UniversityLoma LindaUSA

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