Helicobacter pylori: Immune Responses and Gastric Autoimmunity

  • Maria Kaparakis-Liaskos
  • Mario M. D’EliosEmail author


Helicobacter pylori infects almost half of the population worldwide. H. pylori induces the activation of a fascinating cytokine and chemokine network in the gastric mucosa. Chronic H. pylori infection represents a very interesting model of how a single bacterial infection might result in a variety of different clinical outcomes such as duodenal and gastric ulcers, gastric adenocarcinoma, autoimmune gastritis and B cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. The type of host immune response against H. pylori, particularly the cytolytic effector functions of T cells, is crucial for the outcome of the infection. T cells are potentially able to kill a target via different mechanisms, such as perforins or Fas-Fas ligand interaction. In H. pylori-infected patients with gastric autoimmunity, cytolytic T cells that cross-recognize different epitopes of H. pylori proteins and H(+)K(+)-ATPase autoantigen infiltrate the gastric mucosa and lead to gastric atrophy via long-lasting activation of Fas ligand-mediated apoptosis and perforin-induced cytotoxicity. This chapter will focus on the innate immune responses and the role of H. pylori, T cells and cytokines in the onset of autoimmune gastritis.


Helicobacter Autoimmunity Molecular mimicry Microbial products Immune modulation Immune suppression Innate immunity T cells Toll-like receptors 



Autoimmune gastritis


Activating protein-1


Adenosine triphosphatase


Cytotoxin-associated protein


cag pathogenicity island

E. coli

Escherichia coli


Experimental autoimmune gastritis


Fas ligand


N-Acetyl glucosamine-N-acetyl muramic acid

H. pylori

Helicobacter pylori


Human beta-defensin


Human leukocyte antigen


Secreted peptidyl prolyl cis, trans-isomerase of H. pylori


H. pylori neutrophil-activating protein






IFN regulatory factor


Interferon regulatory factors


Interferon-stimulated genes




Mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue


Microbe-associated molecular pattern


Mitogen-activated protein kinase


Monocyte chemotactic protein




Matrix metalloproteinase


Nuclear factor transcription beta


Nod-like receptor


Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain


Outer membrane vesicles


Pernicious anaemia


Peptidoglycan deacetylase


Pathogen recognition receptor


Retinoic acid-inducible gene


T cell receptor


T helper


Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes


Toll-like receptor


Tumour necrosis factor


Vacuolating cytotoxin A


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.La Trobe UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.University of FlorenceFlorenceItaly

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