Gene Therapy in Skeletal Muscle Repair and Regeneration

  • Adriana C. Panayi
  • Shane M. Lince
  • Indranil SinhaEmail author


Gene therapy (GT), or the altering of genetic material within cells to modify protein structure and quantity, is an emerging field in skeletal muscle regeneration (SMR) and maintenance [1–6]. GT techniques are acquiring increasingly significant functions in approaching various surgical problems [7, 8]. A key insight necessary for maximizing the value from the great deal already known on the regulation of SMR is that every regulatory product is potentially amenable to targeting through multiple GT techniques. This chapter will focus on current GT techniques used in muscle discussing, in particular, potential benefits for Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (PRS).


  1. 1.
    Wolff JA, et al. Science. 1990;247:1465–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tabebordbar M, et al. Science. 2015;5177:1–9.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nelson CE, et al. Science. 2015;5143:1–8.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Duan D. Muscle gene therapy. Berlin: Springer; 2014. (ISBN 1489985247).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Duan D. Muscle gene therapy, methods and protocols. New York: Humana Press; 2011. (ISBN 1617379816).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tepper OM, Mehrara BJ. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2002;109:716–34.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Roman S, Lindeman R, O’Toole G, Poole MD. Curr Gene Ther. 2005;5:81–99.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Scheller EL, Villa-Diaz LG, Krebsbach PH. J Craniofac Surg. 2012;23:333–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Huard J, Li Y, Fu FH. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2002;84-A:822–32.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Stump CS, Henriksen EJ, Wei Y, Sowers JR. Ann Med. 2006;38:389–402.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mathes SJ. Clinical applications for muscle and musculocutaneous flaps. 2nd ed.; 1981. ISBN:801631645.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Thorne CH, Chung KC, Gosain A, et al. Grabb and Smith’s plastic surgery. Philadelphia: LWW; 2013. (ISBN 1451109555).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Stevanovic M, Sharpe F. Atlas Hand Clin. 2002;7:163–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Calderon W, Chang N, Mathes SJ. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1986;77:785–92.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gosain A, Chang N, Mathes S, Hunt TK, Vasconez L. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1990;86(6):1152–62. Available at: PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mathes SJ, Alpert BS, Chang N. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1982;69:815–29.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mathes SJ, Alexander J. Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 1996;5:809–24.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Greenberg B, LaRossa D, Lotke PA, Murphy JB, Noone RB. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1989;83:85–89,97–99.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tajbakhsh S. J Intern Med. 2009;266:372–89.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Järvinen TAH, Järvinen TLN, Kääriäinen M, Kalimo H, Järvinen M. Am J Sports Med. 2005;33:745–64.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mauro A. J Biophys Biochem Cytol. 1961;9:493–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chargé SBP, Rudnicki MA. Physiol Rev. 2004;84:209–38.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Shi X, Garry D. Genes Dev. 2006;20:1692–708.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fu X, Wang H, Hu P. Stem cell activation in skeletal muscle regeneration. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2015;72(9):1663–77.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Allbrook DB, Han MF, Hellmuth AE. Pathology. 1971;3:223–43.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Schmalbruch H, Hellhammer U. Anat Rec. 1976;185:279–87.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Schultz E. Dev Biol. 1996;175:84–94.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jarvinen TAH, et al. Muscle injuries: optimising recovery. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2007;21:317–31.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sicari BM, et al. Sci Transl Med. 2014;6:234ra58.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Grogan BF, Hsu JR. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2011;19(Suppl 1):S35–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Corona BT, et al. Biomaterials. 2013;34:3324–35.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ceafalan LC, Popescu BO, Hinescu ME. Cellular players in skeletal muscle regeneration. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:957014. Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zammit PS, Partridge TA, Yablonka-Reuveni Z. J Histochem Cytochem. 2006;54:1177–91.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cornelison DD, Wold BJ. Dev Biol. 1997;191:270–83.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Beauchamp JR, et al. J Cell Biol. 2000;151:1221–33.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Zammit PS, et al. J Cell Biol. 2004;166:347–57.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hawke TJ, Garry DJ. J Appl Physiol. 2001;91:534–51.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kuang S, Kuroda K, Le Grand F, Rudnicki MA. Cell. 2007;129:999–1010.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Karalaki M, Fili S, Philippou A, Koutsilieris M. Muscle regeneration: cellular and molecular events. In Vivo. 2009;23:779–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Jones NC, et al. J Cell Biol. 2005;169:105–16.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Zhang K, Sha J, Harter ML. J Cell Biol. 2010;188:39–48.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sorrentino V, Pepperkok R, Davis RL, Ansorge W, Philipson L. Nature. 1990;345:813–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Halevy O, et al. Science. 1995;267:1018–21.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Asakura A, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:16552–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Relaix F, et al. J Cell Biol. 2006;172:91–102.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Zanou N, Gailly P. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy and regeneration: interplay between the myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) pathways. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2013;70:4117–30.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Montarras D, L’Honoré A, Buckingham M. Lying low but ready for action: the quiescent muscle satellite cell. FEBS J. 2013;280:4036–50.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Pallafacchina G, et al. Stem Cell Res. 2010;4:77–91.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kumar D, Shadrach JL, Wagers AJ, Lassar AB. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:3170–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Boldrin L, Zammit PS, Muntoni F, Morgan JE. Stem Cells. 2009;27:2478–87.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Gnocchi VF, White RB, Ono Y, Ellis JA, Zammit PS. PLoS One. 2009;4:e5205. Scholar
  52. 52.
    Holterman CE, Le Grand F, Kuang S, Seale P, Rudnicki MA. J Cell Biol. 2007;179:911–22.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Shea KL, et al. Cell Stem Cell. 2010;6:117–29.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Yao S, He Z, Chen C. Hum Gene Ther. 2015;26:463–71.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Frank O, et al. Blood. 2004;104:3543–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Lee H, Habas R, Abate-Shen C. Science. 2004;304:1675–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hansen KH, et al. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:1291–300.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Barski A, et al. Cell. 2007;129:823–37.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Palacios D, et al. Cell Stem Cell. 2010;7:455–69.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    McKinnell IW, et al. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:77–84.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Fulco M, et al. Dev Cell. 2008;14:661–73.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Fulco M, et al. Mol Cell. 2003;12:51–62.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Zhao X, Sternsdorf T, Bolger TA, Evans RM, Yao T-P. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:8456–64.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Tang AH, Rando TA. EMBO J. 2014;33:2782–97.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Guarani V, et al. Nature. 2011;473:234–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Taylor SM, Jones PA. Cell. 1979;17:771–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Fan H, et al. Epigenetics. 2012;7:1379–90.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Erriquez D, Perini G, Ferlini A. Non-coding RNAs in muscle dystrophies. Int J Mol Sci. 2013;14:19681–704.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kirby TJ, McCarthy JJ. MicroRNAs in skeletal muscle biology and exercise adaptation. Free Radic Biol Med. 2013;64:95–105.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Chen JF, et al. J Cell Biol. 2010;190:867–79.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Naguibneva I, et al. Nat Cell Biol. 2006;8:278–84.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Cheung TH, et al. Nature. 2012;482:524–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Cacchiarelli D, et al. EMBO Rep. 2011;12:136–41.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    van Rooij E, Liu N, Olson EN. MicroRNAs flex their muscles. Trends Genet. 2008;24:159–66.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Chen J-F, Callis TE, Wang D-Z. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:13–20.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Ge Y, Chen J. MicroRNAs in skeletal myogenesis. Cell Cycle. 2011;10:441–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Koning M, Werker PMN, van Luyn MJA, Krenning G, Harmsen MC. Differentiation. 2012;84:314–21.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Legnini I, Morlando M, Mangiavacchi A, Fatica A, Bozzoni I. Mol Cell. 2014;53:506–14.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Watts R, Johnsen VL, Shearer J, Hittel DS. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2013;304:C995–1001.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Caretti G, et al. Dev Cell. 2006;11:547–60.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Lu L, et al. EMBO J. 2013;32:2575–88.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Twayana S, et al. Biochem Soc Trans. 2013;41:844–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Toumi H, F’guyer S, Best TM. The role of neutrophils in injury and repair following muscle stretch. J Anat. 2006;208:459–70.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Segawa M, et al. Exp Cell Res. 2008;314:3232–44.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Tidball JG, Villalta SA. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010;298:R1173–87.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Kharraz Y, Guerra J, Mann CJ, Serrano AL, Muñoz-Cánoves P. Macrophage plasticity and the role of inflammation in skeletal muscle repair. Mediat Inflamm. 2013;2013:491497. Scholar
  87. 87.
    Arnold L, et al. J Exp Med. 2007;204:1057–69.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Kollias HD, McDermott JC. J Appl Physiol. 2008;104:579–87.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Joulia-Ekaza D, Cabello G. The myostatin gene: physiology and pharmacological relevance. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2007;7:310–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    McCroskery S, Thomas M, Maxwell L, Sharma M, Kambadur R. J Cell Biol. 2003;162:1135–47.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    McFarlane C, et al. Exp Cell Res. 2008;314:317–29.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Carlson ME, Hsu M, Conboy IM. Nature. 2008;454:528–32.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Sandri M, et al. Cell. 2004;117:399–412.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Perez-Ruiz A, Gnocchi VF, Zammit PS. Cell Signal. 2007;19:1671–80.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Dobrowolny G, et al. J Cell Biol. 2005;168:193–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Owino V, Yang SY, Goldspink G. FEBS Lett. 2001;505:259–63.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Hill M, Goldspink G. J Physiol. 2003;549:409–18.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Kästner S, Elias MC, Rivera AJ, Yablonka-Reuveni Z. J Histochem Cytochem. 2000;48:1079–96.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Sheehan SM, Allen RE. J Cell Physiol. 1999;181:499–506.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Scata KA, Bernard DW, Fox J, Swain JL. Exp Cell Res. 1999;250:10–21.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Floss T, Arnold HH, Braun T. Genes Dev. 1997;11:2040–51.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Fedorov YV, Scott Rosenthal R, Olwin BB. J Cell Biol. 2001;152:1301–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Jones NC, Fedorov YV, Rosenthal RS, Olwin BB. J Cell Physiol. 2001;186:104–15.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Ghali S, Butler PEM, Tepper OM, Gurtner GC. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;119:1735–44.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Takeshita S, et al. J Clin Invest. 1994;93:662–70.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Isner JM, et al. Lancet. 1996;348:370–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Baumgartner I, et al. Circulation. 1998;97:1114–23.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Kryger Z, et al. Ann Plast Surg. 1999;43:172–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Banbury I, Siemionow M, Porvasnik S, Petras S, Browne E. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2000;106:1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Neumeister MW, Song YH, Mowlavi A, Suchy H, Mathur A. Microsurgery. 2001;21:58–62.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Moimas S, et al. J Tissue Eng. 2015;6:2041731415611717. Scholar
  112. 112.
    Gurunluoglu R, Lubiatowski P, Goldman CK, Carnevale K, Siemionow M. Ann Plast Surg. 2002;48:401–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Lubiatowski P, et al. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2002;110:149–59.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Kresse H, Schnherr E. Proteoglycans of the extracellular matrix and growth control. J Cell Physiol. 2001;189:266–74.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Zarnegar R, Michalopoulos GK. The many faces of hepatocyte growth factor: from hepatopoiesis to hematopoiesis. J Cell Biol. 1995;129:1177–80.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Leshem Y, Spicer DB, Gal-Levi R, Halevy O. J Cell Physiol. 2000;184:101–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Bentzinger CF, et al. Cell Stem Cell. 2013;12:75–87.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Ten Broek RW, Grefte S, Von Den Hoff JW. Regulatory factors and cell populations involved in skeletal muscle regeneration. J Cell Physiol. 2010;224:7–16.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Fukushima K, et al. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2007;8:54.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Kherif S, et al. Dev Biol. 1999;205:158–70.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Yamada M, et al. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2008;40:2183–91.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Yamada M, et al. Muscle Nerve. 2006;34:313–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Wozniak AC, Anderson JE. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:240–50.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Stamler JS, Meissner G. Physiol Rev. 2001;81:209–37.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Rigamonti E, et al. J Immunol. 2013;190:1767–77.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Tidball JG. AJP Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2004;288:R345–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Ganea E, Trifan M, Laslo AC, Putina G, Cristescu C. Biochem Soc Trans. 2007;35:689–91.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Hayashi S, et al. Histochem Cell Biol. 2004;122:427–34.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Schuster-Gossler K, Cordes R, Gossler A. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:537–42.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Mourikis P, Gopalakrishnan S, Sambasivan R, Tajbakhsh S. Development. 2012;139:4536–48.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Vasyutina E, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:4443–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Bjornson CRR, et al. Stem Cells. 2012;30:232–42.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Mourikis P, Tajbakhsh S. BMC Dev Biol. 2014;14:2.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Delfini MC, Hirsinger E, Pourquié O, Duprez D. Development. 2000;127:5213–24.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Brack AS, Conboy IM, Conboy MJ, Shen J, Rando TA. Cell Stem Cell. 2008;2:50–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Yin H, Price F, Rudnicki MA. Physiol Rev. 2013;93:23–67.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Polesskaya A, Seale P, Rudnicki MA. Cell. 2003;113:841–52.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Brack AS, et al. Science. 2007;317:807–10.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Le Grand F, Jones AE, Seale V, Scimè A, Rudnicki MA. Cell Stem Cell. 2009;4:535–47.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Garfein ES, Orgill DP, Pribaz JJ. Clinical applications of tissue engineered constructs. Clin Plast Surg. 2003;30:485–98.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Pribaz IJ, Fine NA. Clin Plast Surg. 2001;28(2):261–72, vii. Available at: PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Laurencin CT, Khan Y. Regenerative engineering. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2013. (ISBN 9781782423140).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Shandalov Y, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:6010–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Shandalov Y, Egozi D, Freiman A, Rosenfeld D, Levenberg S. Methods. 2015;84:70–5. Scholar
  145. 145.
    Egozi D, et al. J Vis Exp. 2016;107:52984. Scholar
  146. 146.
    Zhao Y, Feric NT, Thavandiran N, Nunes SS, Radisic M. The role of tissue engineering and biomaterials in cardiac regenerative medicine. Can J Cardiol. 2014;30:1307–22.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Otto A, Collins-Hooper H, Patel K. The origin, molecular regulation and therapeutic potential of myogenic stem cell populations. J Anat. 2009;215:477–97.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Sacco A, Doyonnas R, Kraft P, Vitorovic S, Blau HM. Nature. 2008;456:502–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Bissell MJ, Hall HG, Parry G. J Theor Biol. 1982;99:31–68.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Tatsumi R, Anderson JE, Nevoret CJ, Halevy O, Allen RE. Dev Biol. 1998;194:114–28.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Maina F, et al. Cell. 1996;87:531–42.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Bischoff R. Development. 1990;109:943–52.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Mase VJ, et al. Orthopedics. 2010;33:511.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Agrawal V, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:3351–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Badylak SF, Valentin JE, Ravindra AK, McCabe GP, Stewart-Akers AM. Tissue Eng Part A. 2008;14:1835–42.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Siegel AL, Atchison K, Fisher KE, Davis GE, Cornelison DDW. Stem Cells. 2009;27:2527–38.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Cornelison DD, Filla MS, Stanley HM, Rapraeger AC, Olwin BB. Dev Biol. 2001;239:79–94.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Quinlan JG, et al. Muscle Nerve. 1995;18:201–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Cornelison DDW, et al. Genes Dev. 2004;18:2231–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Gilbert PM, et al. Science. 2010;329:1078–81.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Discher DE, Mooney DJ, Zandstra PW. Science. 2009;324:1673–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Collins CA, et al. Cell. 2005;122:289–301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Powell CA, Smiley BL, Mills J, Vandenburgh H. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2002;283:C1557–65.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Koning M, Harmsen MC, van Luyn MJA, Werker PMN. J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2009;3:407–15.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Beier JP, et al. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006;118(5):1113–21. Scholar
  166. 166.
    Cronin EM, et al. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2004;69:373–81.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Saxena AK, Willital GH, Vacanti JP. Biomed Mater Eng. 2001;11:275–81.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Riboldi SA, Sampaolesi M, Neuenschwander P, Cossu G, Mantero S. Biomaterials. 2005;26:4606–15.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Sicari BM, et al. Tissue Eng Part A. 2012;18:1941–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Corona BT, et al. Tissue Eng Part A. 2012;18:1213–28.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Turner NJ, et al. Tissue Eng Part A. 2010;16:3309–17.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Levenberg S, et al. Differentiation of human embryonic stem cells on three-dimensional polymer scaffolds. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:12741–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Levenberg S, et al. Nat Biotechnol. 2005;23:879–84.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Huang Y-C, Dennis RG, Larkin L, Baar K. J Appl Physiol. 2005;98:706–13.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Christov C, et al. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:1397–409.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Moon du G, Christ G, Stitzel JD, Atala A, Yoo JJ. Tissue Eng Part A. 2008;14:473–82.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Vandenburgh H, et al. Muscle Nerve. 2008;37:438–47.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adriana C. Panayi
    • 1
  • Shane M. Lince
    • 2
  • Indranil Sinha
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of SurgeryBrigham & Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryPenn State Hershey Medical CenterHersheyUSA

Personalised recommendations