Dual Watermarking

  • Obaid Ur-Rehman
  • Natasa Zivic
Part of the Signals and Communication Technology book series (SCT)


In this chapter, two dual watermarking techniques are discussed. Both of these methods are based on extracting features from an image and using the features to generate watermarks. The watermarking techniques discussed in this chapter are based on a combination of image features and forward error correction codes. It is shown how the ability of tolerance to modifications, location of modified positions and (partial) reconstruction of image is achieved through the discussed method. Simulation results are presented for different channels and using different codes.


Edge detection Discrete cosine transform Discrete wavelet transform Dual watermarking Error localization Reed-Solomon codes 


  1. 1.
    J. Canny, A computational approach to edge detection. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. PAMI-8(6), 679 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    R. Gonzalez, R. Woods, Digital Image Processing. Boston, US (Addison Wesley, 1992), pp. 414–428Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J.M.S. Prewitt, Object Enhancement and Extraction, Picture processing and Psychopictorics. Boston, US (Academic Press, 1970)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    L.G. Roberts, Machine perception of three-dimensional solids, Massachusets Institute of Technology, Lincoln Laboratory, May 1963Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Obaid Ur-Rehman
    • 1
  • Natasa Zivic
    • 1
  1. 1.Data Communications SystemsUniversity of SiegenSiegenGermany

Personalised recommendations