Advertisement

Gang Members ‘Doing Masculinity’

  • Ross Deuchar
Chapter

Abstract

In this part of the book, I explore some of the existing literary insights into gangs, masculinity and crime. I also examine the prevailing evidence on religion and spirituality as a potential resource for nurturing turning points, identity and behaviour change. In this chapter I provide an overview of existing international research that identifies links between social constructions of masculinity, gang culture, violence and offending. I explore the way in which, against the backdrop of social and cultural marginalisation, evidence suggests that hyper-aggressive forms of masculinity have become valorised in some contexts, with a tendency towards membership of male-dominated gangs, criminal activity and street violence. I begin to consider how reformatory interventions may be most effectively designed to enable male gang members to move towards criminal desistance while also creating contexts that will prevent them from feeling emasculated.

References

  1. Abrams, L. S., Anderson-Nathe, B., & Aguilar, J. (2008). Constructing masculinities in juvenile corrections. Men and Masculinities, 11(1), 22–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aldridge, J., Medina, J., & Ralphs, R. (2008). Dangers and problems of doing gang research in the UK. In F. Van Gemert, D. Petersen, & I. L. Lien (Eds.), Street gangs, migration and ethnicity (pp. 31–46). Collumpton: Willan.Google Scholar
  3. Alonso, A. (2004). Racialized identitites and the formation of black gangs in Los Angeles. Urban Geography, 25(7), 658–674.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alós, R. (2015). Effects of prison work programmes on the employability of ex-prisoners. European Journal of Criminology, 12(1), 35–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson, E. (1999). Code of the street. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  6. Baird, A. (2012). The violent gang and the construction of masculinity amongst socially excluded young men. Safer Communities, 11(4), 179–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Birgden, A. (2015). Maximising desistance: Adding therapeutic jurisprudence and human rights to the mix. Criminal Justice and Behaviour, 42(1), 19–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carlsson, C. (2013). Masculinities, persistence, and desistance. Criminology, 51(3), 661–693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carrington, K., McIntosh, A., & Scott, J. (2010). Globalization, frontier masculinities and violence: Booze, blokes and brawls. British Journal of Criminology, 50, 393–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Carson, D. C., & Esbensen, F.-A. (2016). Motivations for leaving gangs in the USA: A qualitative comparison of leaving processes across gang definitions. In C. L. Maxson & F.-A. Esbensen (Eds.), Gang transitions and transformations in an international context (pp. 139–155). Switzerland: Springer.Google Scholar
  11. Chin, K. (1990). Chinese subculture and criminality: Non-traditional crime group in America. Westport: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  12. Cloward, R., & Ohlin, L. (1960). Delinquency and opportunity: A theory of delinquent gangs. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  13. Cohen, A. K. (1955). Delinquent boys: The culture of the gang. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  14. Connell, R. W. (2005). Masculinities. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  15. Decker, S. H., Pyrooz, D., & Moule, R. K., Jr. (2014). Disengagement from gangs as role transitions. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 24(2), 268–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Densley, J. (2013). How gangs work: An ethnography of youth violence. London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Densely, J. A. (2015). ‘We’ll show you gang’: The subterranean structuration of gang life in London. Criminology and Criminal Justice, 15(1), 102–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Deuchar, R. (2009). Gangs, marginalized youth and social capital. Stoke on Trent: Trentham.Google Scholar
  19. Deuchar, R. (2013). Policing youth violence: Transatlantic connections. London: Trentham Books/IOE Press.Google Scholar
  20. Flores, E. O. (2014). God’s gangs: Barrio ministry, masculinity and gang recovery. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Fraser, A. (2015). Urban legends: Gang identity in the post-industrial city. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Gadd, D., & Farrall, S. (2004). Criminal careers, desistance and subjectivity. Theoretical Criminology, 8(2), 1362–4806.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Giordano, P. C., Cernkovich, S. A., & Rudolph, J. L. (2002). Gender, crime, and desistance: Toward a theory of cognitive transformation. American Journal of Sociology, 107(4), 990–1064.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Goodey, J. (1997). Boys don’t cry: Masculinities, fear of crime, and fearlessness. British Journal of Criminology, 37(3), 401–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hagedorn, J. M. (2004). Gang. In M. S. Kimmel & A. Aronson (Eds.), Encyclopedia of men and masculinities (pp. 329–330). Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO.Google Scholar
  26. Hagedorn, J. (2008). A world of gangs: Armed young men and gansta culture. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
  27. Hallsworth, S. (2011). Street crime. Oxon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  28. Harding, S. (2014). The street casino: Survival in violent street gangs. Bristol: Policy Press.Google Scholar
  29. Hayward, K., & Ilan, J. (2011). Deviant subcultures. In C. D. Bryant (Ed.), The Routledge handbook of deviant behavior (pp. 233–239). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  30. Healy, D. (2012). The dynamics of desistance: Charting pathways through change. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  31. Holligan, C., & Deuchar, R. (2015). What does it mean to be a man? Psychosocial undercurrents in the voices of incarcerated (violent) Scottish teenage offenders. Criminology and Criminal Justice, 15(3), 361–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Honkatukia, P., Nyqvist, L., & Tarja, P. (2007). Violence talk and gender in youth residential care. Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, 8, 56–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Joe-laidler, K., & Hunt, G. (2012). Moving beyond the gang–drug–violence connection. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy, 19(6), 442–452.Google Scholar
  34. Keddie, A. (2003). Little boys: Tomorrow’s macho lads. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 24(3), 289–306.Google Scholar
  35. Kersten, J. (2001). Groups of violent males in Germany. In M. Klein, H.-J. Kerner, C. Maxson, & E. Whitekamp (Eds.), The Eurogang pardox: Street gangs and youth groups in the U.S. and Europe (pp. 247–255). London: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  36. Klein, M. (1971). Street gangs and street workers. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  37. Klein, M. (2008). Foreword. In F. Van Gemert, D. Petersen, & I. L. Lien (Eds.), Street gangs, migration and ethnicity (pp. xi–xv). Collumpton: Willan.Google Scholar
  38. Laub, J. H., & Sampson, R. J. (1993). Turning points in the life course: Why change matters to the study of crime. Criminology, 31(3), 301–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Laub, J. H., & Sampson, R. J. (2003). Shared beginnings, divergent lives: Delinquent boys to age 70. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Liebregts, N., van der Pol, P., de Graafb, R., van Laar, M., van den Brink, W., & Korf, D. J. (2015). Persistence and desistance in heavy cannabis use: The role of identity, agency, and life events. Journal of Youth Studies, 18(5), 617–633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lien, I.-L. (2005). Criminal gangs and their connections: Metaphors, definitions and structures. In S. H. Decker & F. M. Weerman (Eds.), European street gangs and troublesome youth groups (pp. 31–50). New York: Altamira Press.Google Scholar
  42. Lo, T. W. (2010). Beyond social capital: Triad organized crime in Hong Kong and China. British Journal of Criminology, 50, 851–872.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Maruna, S. (2001). Making good: How ex-convicts reform and rebuild their lives. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Maruna, S., & Farrall, S. (2004). Desistance from crime: A theoretical reformulation. Kolner Zeitschrift fur Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, 43, 171–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. McNeill, F. (2004). Desistance, rehabilitation and correctionalism: Developments and prospects in Scotland. The Howard Journal, 43(4), 420–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. McNeill, F., & Maruna, S. (2008). Giving up and giving back: Desistance, generativity and social work with offenders. In G. McIvor & P. Raynor (Eds.), Developments in social work with offenders (pp. 224–339). London: Jessica Kingsley.Google Scholar
  47. Messerschmidt, J. (1993). Masculinities and crime: Critique and reconceptualization of theory. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  48. Messerschmidt, J. (2005). Men, masculinities and crime. In M. S. Kimmel, J. Hearn, & R. W. Connell (Eds.), Handbook of studies on men and masculinities (pp. 196–212). London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Miller, W. (1958). Lower class culture as a generating milieu of gang delinquency. Social Issues, 14(3), 5–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Palasinski, M., & Riggs, D. W. (2012). Young British men and knife-carrying in public: Discourses of masculinity, protection and vulnerability. Critical Criminology, 20(4), 463–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Patrick, J. (1973). A Glasgow gang observed. London: Eyre Muthuen.Google Scholar
  52. Phoenix, A., Frosh, S., & Pattman, R. (2003). Producing contradictory masculine subject positions: Narratives of threat, homophobia and bullying in 11–14 year old boys. Journal of Social Issues, 59(1), 179–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Pitts, J. (2008). Reluctant gangsters: The changing face of youth crime. Devon: Willan.Google Scholar
  54. Pyrooz, D. C. (2014). Book review: God’s gangs: Barrio ministry, masculinity and gang recovery, by Edward Orozco Flores. Crime, Law and Social Change, 62, 621–624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Pyrooz, D. C., & Decker, S. H. (2011). Motives and methods for leaving the gang: Understanding the process of gang desistance. Journal of Criminal Justice, 39, 417–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Pyrooz, D. C., & Decker, S. H. (2013). Delinquent behavior, violence, and gang involvement in China. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 29(2), 251–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H. (2005). A life-course view of the development of crime. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 602(1), 12–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sandberg, S., & Pedersen, W. (2011). Street capital: Black cannabis dealers in a white welfare state. Bristol: Policy Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Scott-Samuel, A., Stanistreet, D., & Crawshaw, P. (2009). Hegemonic masculinity, structural violence and health inequalities. Critical Public Health, 19(3–4), 287–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Shaw, C. R., & McKay, H. D. (1942). Juvenile delinquency and urban areas. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  61. Søgaard, T. F., Kolind, T., Thylstrup, B., & Deuchar, R. (2016). Desistance and the micro-narrative construction in a Danish rehabilitation centre. Criminology and Criminal Justice, 16(1), 99–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Thrasher, F. (1927). The gang: A study of 1313 gangs in Chicago. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  63. Van Gemert, F., & Stuifbergen, J. (2008). Gangs, migration and conflict: Thrasher’s theme in The Netherlands. In F. Van Gemert, D. Peterson, & I.-L. Lien (Eds.), Street gangs, migration and ethnicity (pp. 79–96). Cullompton: Willan.Google Scholar
  64. Van Gemert, F., Esbensen, F.-A., & Maxson, C. L. (2011). Five decades of defining gangs in The Netherlands: The Eurogang paradox in practice. In F.-A. Esbensen & C. L. Maxson (Eds.), Youth gangs in international perspective: Results from the Eurogang progam of research (pp. 69–83). London: Springer.Google Scholar
  65. Van Gemert, F., Roks, R., & Drogt, M. (2016). Dutch Crips run dry in liquid society. In C. L. Maxson & F.-A. Esbensen (Eds.), Gang transitions and transformations in an international context (pp. 157–172). Switzerland: Springer.Google Scholar
  66. Vigil, J. D. (1988). Barrio gangs: Street life and identity in Southern California. Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  67. Weitekamp, E. G. M., Reich, K., & Kerner, H.-J. (2005). Why do young male Russians of German descent tend to join or form violent gangs? In S. H. Decker & F. M. Weerman (Eds.), European street gangs and troublesome youth groups (pp. 81–104). New York: Altamira Press.Google Scholar
  68. White, R. (2013). Youth gangs, violence and social respect: Exploring the nature of provocations and punch-ups. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Whyte, W. F. (1943). Street corner society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  70. Yablonsky, L. (1967). The violent gang. Middlesex: Pelican.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Interdisciplinary Research Unit on Crime, Policing and Social Justice, School of EducationUniversity of the West of ScotlandAyrUK

Personalised recommendations