Advertisement

Trade Agreements with ASEAN Countries

  • Arlo Poletti
  • Daniela Sicurelli
Chapter

Abstract

The position of the EU in the negotiations with Vietnam shows that the EU is less prone to concede long transition periods and flexible rules of origin to an ASEAN country than to Latin American countries. Moreover, the agreement includes a soft language concerning suspension of reciprocal trade commitments in case of human rights violations, while it promotes the most detailed consultation procedure in the enforcement of sustainable development. A comparison with the trade agreement concluded with Singapore also shows that the EU has exerted greater pressures on Vietnam to adjust to EU regulatory standards than to other high-income ASEAN members. Due to the downstream location of Vietnam in high-tech manufacturing and to its labour-intensive industry, import-dependent and sector-specific protectionist groups strongly mobilized in order to affect the negotiations. Competition with the US also strengthened European exporters’ interest to obtain conditions enabling access to these countries’ markets similar to those granted to their US counterparts. NGOs found allies in the protectionist industry in the promotion of high labour and environmental standards and strict enforcement procedures. However, these groups proved less effective in pushing forward binding human rights clauses. Similar patterns of societal mobilization are emerging in the ongoing negotiations with other ASEAN members.

Keywords

Vietnam European exporter import-dependent interests import-competing firms NGOs 

References

  1. Borderlex. 2015. EU Vietnam FTA: Rice Carve-Outs and ‘Double Transformation’ Rule of Origin in Sight. 15 February. http://www.borderlex.eu/eu-vietnam-fta-devil-rule-origin/?print=print.
  2. BusinessEurope. 2006. UNICE Strategy on an EU Approach to Free Trade Agreements. Brussels, 7 December.Google Scholar
  3. ———. 2007a. BusinessEurope Position on the EU–Korea Free Trade Agreement—Position Paper. Brussels, 18 July.Google Scholar
  4. ———. 2007b. BusinessEurope Position on the EU–ASEAN Free Trade Agreement—Position Paper. Brussels, 26 June.Google Scholar
  5. CIBE 2013. CIBE Working Document Answer to the Public Consultation on the FTA with Thailand, D069-2013.Google Scholar
  6. Doan, X. L. 2012. Opportunities and Challenges in EU-ASEAN Trade Relations, Report, EU Asia Center, 2 July. http://www.eu-asiacentre.eu/pub_details.php?pub_id=60. Accessed 25 Aug 2014.
  7. Eckhardt, J. 2011. Firm Lobbying and EU Trade Policy Making: Reflections on the Anti-Dumping Case Against Chinese and Vietnamese Shoes (2005–2011). Journal of World Trade 45 (5): 965–991.Google Scholar
  8. ———. 2015. Business Lobbying and Trade Governance: The Case of EU-China Relations. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Eckhardt, J., and A. Poletti. 2016. Trading with Asia: Import-Dependent Firms and EU-Asia Trade Agreements. Journal of European Public Policy 3 (10): 1543–1562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. EU Delegation to Vietnam. 2016. Guide to the EU-Vietnam Free Trade Agreement. June. http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2016/june/tradoc_154622.pdf.
  11. Euractiv. 2007. EU-ASEAN to Push for Trade Deal Despite Myanmar Discord. Brussels, 27 November.Google Scholar
  12. ———. 2015. Hogan: EU-Vietnam Deal Won’t Hurt Italian Rice. Brussels, 28 August.Google Scholar
  13. ———. 2017. EU-ASEAN Trade Talks Show Signs of Life, 10 March.Google Scholar
  14. Euratex. 2010. Euratex: EU Trade Policy Revision—Position Paper. Brussels.Google Scholar
  15. Eurocommerce. 2007a. Free Trade Negotiations EU–ASEAN: Contribution to the DG Trade Stakeholder Consultation. Position Paper, Brussels, 31 May.Google Scholar
  16. ———. 2007b. Free Trade Negotiations EU–India: Contribution to the DG Trade Stakeholder Consultation. Position Paper, Brussels, 31 May.Google Scholar
  17. ———. 2009. Eurocommerce Draft Action Plan. Briefing to the Steering Committee, Brussels, 14 October.Google Scholar
  18. ———. 2010. EU–Korea Trade Deal: A Boost for Retail and Wholesale. Press Release, Brussels, 6 October.Google Scholar
  19. ———. 2012. EU–Vietnam Trade. Position Paper, Brussels, August 2012.Google Scholar
  20. ———. 2013. EU-Thailand Free Trade Agreement—Eurocommerce Response to Consultation. Position Paper, May.Google Scholar
  21. ———. 2015. EU-Vietnam Trade: Commerce for Free Trade Agreement. Briefing, Brussels, April.Google Scholar
  22. European Association of Automotive Suppliers. 2012. ASEAN—Policy Report. Brussels, 26 September.Google Scholar
  23. European Commission. 2006. Global Europe: Competing in the World. COM (2006) 567 Final, 4 October.Google Scholar
  24. ———. 2009. EU to Launch FTA Negotiations with Individual ASEAN Countries, Beginning with Singapore. Press Release, Brussels, 22 December.Google Scholar
  25. ———. 2013. Public Consultation on the Future Investment Relationship Between the EU and Myanmar. Results of the Questionnaire, Brussels, 15 July. http://trade.ec.europa.eu/consultations/index.cfm?consul_id=176.
  26. ———. 2015. Facts and Figures: Free Trade Agreement Between EU and Vietnam—Fact Sheet. Brussels, 04 August.Google Scholar
  27. ———. 2016a. European Union, Trade in Goods with ASEAN. Report, Brussels.Google Scholar
  28. ———. 2016b. Questionnaire on a Free Trade Agreement with the Philippine Feedback from Industry Stakeholders. Report, Brussels, 29 July. http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2016/july/tradoc_154827.pdf.
  29. ———. 2017. The Texts Proposed by the EU for the Trade Deal with Indonesia. Brussels, 23 May. http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/press/index.cfm?id=1620.
  30. European Parliament. 2008. Report on Trade and Economic Relations with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. Explanatory Statement.Google Scholar
  31. ———. 2009. European Parliament Resolution of 26 November 2009 on the Situation in Laos and Vietnam, P7_TA(2009)0104.Google Scholar
  32. ———. 2014. The European Parliament’s Role in Relations to Human Rights in Trade and Investment Agreements, Directorate General for External Policies of the Union, Policy Department Study.Google Scholar
  33. European Services Forum. 2006. ESF Letter to Trade Commissioner Peter Mandelson on the External Aspects of Competitiveness. Brussels, 21 March.Google Scholar
  34. ———. 2007. ESF Position Paper on EU Free Trade Agreements. Brussels 28 February.Google Scholar
  35. ———. 2011. Bilateral Negotiations: EU-Malaysia. Report.Google Scholar
  36. ———. 2014. Position Paper Submitted to the European Commission Public Consultation on the Future Investment Relationship Between the EU and Myanmar. Brussels, 15 February. http://trade.ec.europa.eu/consultations/index.cfm?consul_id=176.
  37. ———. 2016a. ESF Response to DG Trade Questionnaire on the EU—Philippines FTA. Press Release, 29 April.Google Scholar
  38. ———. 2016b. Bilateral Negotiations: EU-Indonesia. Report.Google Scholar
  39. European Tyre and Rubber Manufacturers’ Association. 2010. ETRMA Contribution to a Consultation on the Free Trade Agreement with Malaysia. Policy Report, 3 December.Google Scholar
  40. Eurostat. 2015. EU Trade and Investment Statistics with the Association of South East Asian Nations. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/EU_trade_and_investment_statistics_with_the_Association_of_South_East_Asian_Nations_(ASEAN).
  41. Eurothon. 2012. The EU Tuna Industry: Challenges and Prospects. Conference Presentation. Bangkok, 24 May.Google Scholar
  42. Foreign Trade Association. 2009. European Retailers Call for Quick Conclusion to EU–Korea Free Trade Agreement. Press Release, 23 February.Google Scholar
  43. ———. 2012. EU–Vietnam Trade Negotiations. Position Paper, 20 November.Google Scholar
  44. ———. 2014. EU-Myanmar Trade Relations. Position Paper, February. http://itp.fta-intl.org/resource/fta-position-paper-eu-myanmar-trade-relations-1-february-2014.
  45. ———. 2015. FTA Welcomes the Opening of Negotiations Between Philippines and the EU. Press Release, 22 December. http://itp.fta-intl.org/news/fta-welcomes-opening-negotiations-between-philippines-and-eu.
  46. Garcìa, M. 2013. From Idealism to Realism? EU Preferential Trade Agreement Policy. Journal of Contemporary European Research 9 (4): 521–541.Google Scholar
  47. Gavin, B., and A. Sindzingre. 2009. EU Trade Relations with Emerging Asia: Identifying the Issues. Asia Europe Journal 7 (1): 9–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hoang, H.H. 2016. Normative Power Europe Through Trade: Vietnamese Perceptions. International Relations 30 (2): 176–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hoang, H.H., and D. Sicurelli. 2017. The EU’s Preferential Trade Agreements with Singapore and Vietnam. Market vs. Normative Imperatives. Contemporary Politics 23 (4): 369–387. https://doi.org/10.1080/13569775.2017.1289303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mallinder, L. 2008. Shoemaker Fight Cheap Imports. European Voice, 24 April.Google Scholar
  51. Manger, M. 2012. Vertical Trade Specialization and the Formation of North–South PTAs. World Politics 64 (4): 622–658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Meissner, K. 2016. A Case of Failed Interregionalism? Analyzing the EU-ASEAN Free Trade Agreement Negotiations. Asia Europe Journal 14 (3): 319–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Poletti, A., and D. Sicurelli. 2016. The European Union, Preferential Trade Agreements, and the International Regulation of Sustainable Biofuels. Journal of Common Market Studies 54 (2): 249–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Risoitaliano. 2015. Stop Mr Hogan! Press Release, 26 July.Google Scholar
  55. Sahakyan, D. 2016. EU Trade Policy Responses to the Proliferation of Preferential Trade Agreements in Latin America and East and Southeast Asia. Politics & Policy 44 (1): 74–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sicurelli, D. 2015a. The EU as a Promoter of Human Rights in Bilateral Trade Agreements: The Case of the Negotiations with Vietnam. Journal of Contemporary European Research 11 (2): 230–245.Google Scholar
  57. ———. 2015b. The EU as a Norm Promoter Through Trade. The Perceptions of Vietnamese Elites. Asia Europe Journal 13 (1): 23–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arlo Poletti
    • 1
  • Daniela Sicurelli
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Sociology and Social ResearchUniversity of TrentoTrentoItaly

Personalised recommendations