Advertisement

Trade Agreements with Latin American Countries

  • Arlo Poletti
  • Daniela Sicurelli
Chapter

Abstract

The EU has concluded comprehensive preferential trade agreements with Central American (CA) countries and the Andean Community (AC). Despite significant asymmetries in terms of the timing of the respective commitments, these agreements include provisions that significantly eliminate and/or reduce both tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade and promote stringent norms concerning human rights. Even though these trade partner countries have a relatively small market size, these agreements mobilized few but important exporting interests in the EU. More specifically, European producers and investors supported these trade deals with a view to level the playing field with their US counterparts, which had increased market access to these sets of countries thanks to the trade agreements signed with the US a few years earlier. Due to the low levels of integration of both CA countries and the AC, the political role of EU import-dependent firms remained marginal throughout these negotiations. While European farmers voiced their strong opposition to the prospect of an EU–MERCOSUR (Mercado Común del Sur) trade agreement, they did not mobilize to oppose EU trade agreements with these other Latin American countries. Opposition to these agreements mainly materialized in the form of concerns raised by some NGOs and trade unions over the human rights, environmental and labour rights implications of these agreements. However, the inclusion of a wide set of provisions dealing with these issues in the negotiating position of the EU was successful in diffusing this opposition over time.

Keywords

Central America Andean Community domino effect European exporters civil society organizations 

References

  1. Araujo, M.B.A. 2016. The EU Deep Trade Agenda. Law and Policy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. BusinessEurope. 2012. Speaking Points for Adrian Van den Hoven, Director for International Relations, EU Colombia and Peru Trade AgreementEuropean Parliament Hearing. Brussels, 29 February.Google Scholar
  3. Colombian Ministry for Commerce, Industry and Tourism. 2012. Colombia-European Union Partnership Agreement. Virtual Interview with Mister of Trade, Industry and Tourism, Sergio Diaz-Granados, 26 June.Google Scholar
  4. Dominiguez, R. 2015. EU Foreign Policy Towards Latin America. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dür, A. 2007. EU Trade Policy as Protection for Exporters: The Agreements with Mexico and Chile. Journal of Common Market Studies 45 (4): 833–855.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. ETUC. 2012. Letter to the Members of the European Parliament on the Proposed Free Trade Agreement with Colombia and Peru. Brussels, 22 February.Google Scholar
  7. Euractiv. 2012. EU Latin America Trade Deals in Troubled Water. Brussels, 28 June.Google Scholar
  8. Eurochambres and Business Europe. 2012. Future Trade Deals with Colombia/Peru and Central America to Boost EU Business. Press Release, Brussels, 27 June.Google Scholar
  9. Eurocommerce. 2007. Free Trade Negotiations EU-Andean Community: Contribution to the DG Trade Stakeholder Consultation. Position Paper, Brussels, 31 May.Google Scholar
  10. European Commission. 2006. A Stronger Partnership Between the European Union and Latin America. Brussels. http://eeas.europa.eu/la/docs/com05_636_en.pdf.
  11. ———. 2011. Highlights of the Trade Pillar of the Association Agreement Between Central America and the European Union. Brussels, 20 June. http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_MEMO-11-429_en.htm.
  12. ———. 2012. Highlights of the Trade Agreement Between Colombia, Peru and the European Union. Brussels, 26 June. http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_MEMO-12-487_en.htm?locale=en.
  13. ———. 2016. European Union: Trade in Goods with Central America. http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2006/september/tradoc_113478.pdf.
  14. European Services Forum. 2011. Services Industry Calls the European Parliament to Give Its Consent for the Conclusion of the EU-Colombia, Peru and Central American FTAs. Letter to the Chairman of the International Trade Committee of the European Parliament, ESF11-16, Brussels, 21 November.Google Scholar
  15. ———. 2012. The Voice of European Services Sectors in International Trade: EU-Central America. 11 December. http://www.esf.be/new/esf-eu-trade-policy/eu-free-trade-agreements/eu-central-america/.
  16. FIDH. 2012. FTA: The Colombian Road Map Does Not Respect EP Conditions. Press Release, 9 November.Google Scholar
  17. Fritz, T. 2010. The Second Conquest. The EU Free Trade Agreement with Colombia and Peru. Amsterdam: Transnational Institute.Google Scholar
  18. Garcia, M. 2015. The European Union and Latin America: ‘Transformative Power Europe’ Versus the Realities of Economic Interests. Cambridge Review of International Relations 28 (4): 621–640.Google Scholar
  19. OIDHACO. 2010. TLC entre UE y Colombia: una firma inoportuna, contraproducente e irresponsible. International Office for Human Rights—Action on Colombia, 26 May.Google Scholar
  20. Orbie, J., D. Martens, M. Oehri, and L. Van den Putte. 2017. Promoting Sustainable Development or Legitimising Free Trade? Civil Society Mechanisms in EU Trade Agreements. Third World Thematics: A TWQ Journal. https://doi.org/10.1080/23802014.2016.1294032
  21. Schott, J. 2006. Free Trade Agreements and US Trade Policy: A Comparative Analysis of US Initiatives in Latin America, the Asia–Pacific Region, and the Middle East and North Africa. International Trade Journal 20 (2): 95–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Stevens, C., J. Kean, L. Bartels, and S. Woolcock. 2012. European Union: Trade Agreement with Colombia and Peru. Study Requested by the European Parliament, Policy Department DG External Policies, Brussels.Google Scholar
  23. Woolcock, S., J. Keane, C. Stevens, and L. Bartels. 2012. The Trade Chapter of the European Union Association Agreement with Central America. Study Requested by the European Parliament, Policy Department DG External Policies, Brussels.Google Scholar
  24. Wu, C.H. 2012. The Evolution of EU External Economic Law—Legal and Policy Changes. EurAmerica 42 (4): 753–839.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arlo Poletti
    • 1
  • Daniela Sicurelli
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Sociology and Social ResearchUniversity of TrentoTrentoItaly

Personalised recommendations