Advertisement

Coviability in the Governance of Pastoral Systems, Permanence and Change. How Does the Governance of Pastoral Systems Appeal to the Coviability Concept?

Chapter
  • 213 Downloads

Abstract

Why does the governance of pastoral systems need to be based on coviability?

Below, brief comments are presented about the coviability concept in pastoral systems: a collective approach of viability due to: first, the permanent interactions between farming systems at various scales (household, family, tribe), and secondly the need to establish rules to avoid the tragedy of commons. Based on pastoral systems located in five contrasted contexts from bioclimatic and socio-economic points of view (Tibetan Plateau, Mediterranean, Sahel, Pampa and South Patagonia), the authors describe the strong interactions between the farming systems at different scales in diverse domains: herd management, innovation, strategies to face risks, marketing, lobbying, social and cultural issues, etc. Then, they demonstrate how the local societies progressively have been constrained to established rules to access the rangeland, firstly when resources were not sufficient (tragedy of the commons) and more recently with the new environmental challenge leading to functional integrity which is coviability at the level of the rangeland management. Indeed, functional integrity refers to the collective level in the sustainable management of rangeland resources: coordination, short and long term planning of the use of resources, promoting ecosystem services, control and prevention of conflicts, considering the hopes and the fears of the local people, etc. The authors conclude with three scenarios for pastoral systems according to the level of sustainable rangeland management goals and coviability adopted by breeder societies at a local scale: rapid disappearance in the global market, resistance and protection as heritage, sustainable rangeland management and gold coviability based on functional integrity.

Keywords

Pastoral systems Governance Commons Interactions Breeder societies 

References

  1. Alary V, Duteurtre G, Faye B (2011) Elevages et sociétés: les rôles multiples de l’élevage dans les pays tropicaux. INRA Productions Animales 24:145–156Google Scholar
  2. Alary V, Daoud I Abdelzaher M, Salama O, Aboul-Naga A, Merveille N, Tourrand JF (2012) Adaptation des societies bédouines de la Côte Nord-Est de l’Egypte au changement global. Autrepart (62), France, pp 183–200Google Scholar
  3. Alary V, Hassan F, Daoud I, Aboul-Naga A, Abd El Zaher M, Bastanelli D, Lescoat P, Moselhy N, Tourrand JF (2014) Bedouin adaptation to last drought in the North Coastal Zone of Egypt: continuity or rupture? World Dev 62:125–137.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2014.05.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arbeletche P, Perugorría A, Saravia A, Correa P, de Torres MF, Morales H, Franco R, Gedouin M, Poccard-Chapuis R, Bonaudo T, Capdevila L, Valarié P, Tourrand JF (2012) Norte del Uruguay: ¿cómo analizan los actores la dinámica de la ganadería? In: Estudios agrarios y agroindustriales. UBA, Buenos AiresGoogle Scholar
  5. Biber JP (2006) Review of the literature on Pastoral Economics and Marketing: Europe. Report prepared for the World Initiative for Sustainable Pastoralism, IUCN EARO, 2006Google Scholar
  6. Bland WL, Bell MM (2007) A holon approach to agroecology. Int J Agric Sustain 5:280–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blench R (2001) ‘You can’t go home again’-Pastoralism in the new millennium. FAO reportGoogle Scholar
  8. Cesaro JD, Magrin G, Ninot O (2010) Atlas de l’élevage au Sénégal. Cirad, Montpellier, 34 pGoogle Scholar
  9. Coronato FR, Tourrand JF (2011) La Patagonie à la croisée des nations. In: Mobilités, Territoires et Identités en Amérique. De l’Indépendance aux années 1930. Presses Universitaires de Pau, Pau cedexGoogle Scholar
  10. Coronato FR, Tourrand JF (2015) Mouton, dessine-moi un pays. Techniques & Cultures, n°63, Paris, pp 162–181Google Scholar
  11. Costanza, R., d’Arge, R., de Groot, R., Farber, S., Grasso, M., Hannon, B., Naeem, S., Limburg, K., Paruelo, J., O’Neill, R.V., Raskin, R., Sutton, P., van den Belt, M., (1997). The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature 387, 253–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dong S, Kassam KAS, Tourrand JF, Bone RB (2016) Building resilience of coupled human-nature systems of pastoralism in seveloping world. An exploration of interdisciplinary strategies for sustainable pastoralism. Ed Springer (in press)Google Scholar
  13. Duteurtre G, Faye B (2009) L’élevage, richesse des pauvres. Coll. Sciences & Technologies, Ed. QUAE, Versailles, 284pGoogle Scholar
  14. Eldridge D, Freudenberger D (eds) (2004) People of the Rangelands. Building the future. In: Proceedings of the VI International Rangeland Congress. VI International Rangeland Congress Inc., Townsville, pp 819–824Google Scholar
  15. Faye A (2016) Les politiques d’élevage du Sénégal de 1960 à 2012. Effets et impacts sur les systèmes pastoraux de la zone sahélienne. In: Waquil PD et al. Livestock Policies. (in press)Google Scholar
  16. Gerber P, Mooney HA, Dijkman J, Tarawali S, Hann C (2010) Livestock in a changing landscape. Experiences and regional perspectives, vol 2. Ed. Island Press, 210p. http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/am075e/am075e00.pdf
  17. Hardin G (1968) The tragedy of the commons. Science 162(3859):1243–1248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Homem V, Morales H, Champredonde M, Tourrand J (2008) The south-american livestock and the sustainability challenge. In: Hubert B, Kammili T (eds) A shift in natural resources management paradigm: from resources sufficiency to functional integrity? QUAE, ParisGoogle Scholar
  19. Hubert B, Ison R (2011) Institutionalising understandings: from resource sufficiency to functional integrity. In: Kammili T, Hubert B, Tourrand J-F (eds). A paradigm shift in livestock management: form resource sufficiency to functional integrity. 28th & 29th June 2008, Hohhot, China. Cardère éditeur, Lirac (France), pp 9–22Google Scholar
  20. IPCC (2009) International painel for climate change. 2009 ReportGoogle Scholar
  21. Landais E, Lhoste P, Milleville P (1987) Points de vue sur la zootechnie et les systèmes d’élevage tropicaux. Cirad-Inra-Orstom, Paris, 26 pGoogle Scholar
  22. Lhoste PH (1984) Le diagnostic sur le système d’élevage. Cah Rech Dév 3–4:84–88Google Scholar
  23. Long R, Qi XJ, Ding L, Yang TT, Bonaudo T, Hubert B, Tourrand JF (2014) Sur le toit du monde, les pasteurs tibétains face au changement. In: Bosc PM et al (eds) Diversité des Agricultures Familiales. Exister, se Transformer, devenir. Ed. QUAE, Versailles, pp 301–314Google Scholar
  24. McGee D, de Menocal PB, Winckler G, Stuut JB, Bradtmiller LI (2013) The magnitude, timing and abruptness of changes in North African dust deposition over the last 20,000 years. Earth Planet Sci Lett 371–372:163–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Moraes MI (2008) La pradera perdida. Historia y economía del agro uruguayo: una visión de largo plazo, 1760–1970. Ed. Linardi y Risso, Montevideo, 189 pGoogle Scholar
  26. Morales H, Coronato FR, Carvalho SA, Saravia A, Schweitzer A, Bendahan AB, Tourrand JF (2015) Building new coupled human-natural systems for sustainable pasture management in South America. In: Dong S, Kassam KAS, Tourrand JF, Boone RB (eds) Building resilience of coupled human-natural systems of pastoralism in the developing world: an exploration of interdisciplinary strategies for sustainable pastoralism. Ed. Springer (in press)Google Scholar
  27. Moran EF (2006) People and nature: an introduction to human ecological relations. Blackwell Publishing, Malden, p 52. ISBN: 978-1-4051-0572-9 Google Scholar
  28. Qi XJ, Ding L, Long R, Yang T Hubert B, Tourrand JF (2014) Coupling interdisciplinary researches and multi-scale approaches to understand the resilience of the socio-ecological system in the Qilian Mountains, Tibetan Plateau, China In: Global Fair and Workshop on Long-Term Observatories of Mountain Socio-Ecological Systems, Reno (NV), USA on 16–19 July 2014Google Scholar
  29. Sachs I (1998) L’écodéveloppement. Editions Syros, Paris, 123 pGoogle Scholar
  30. Saravia A (2016) Eleveurs et Société Gaucha face au changement global. Thèse doctorat, ED ABIES-AgroParisTech, Paris, France, 278pGoogle Scholar
  31. Sraïri MT (2011) Le développement de l’élevage au Maroc: succès relatifs et dépendance alimentaire. Le Courrier de l’Environnement de l’INRA 60:91–101Google Scholar
  32. Steinfeld H, Gerber P, Wassenaar T, Castel V, Rosales M, Hann C (2006) Livestock’s long shadow. Environmental issues and options. FAO Report, 380 p. www.fao.org/docrep/010/a0701e/a0701e00.HTM
  33. Steinfeld H, Mooney HA, Schneider F, Neville LE (eds) (2010) Livestock in a changing landscape. Volume 1: drivers, consequences, and responses. Island Press, Washington, DC. http://books.google.fr/books?id=lug9AF-wVR8C&redir_esc=y Google Scholar
  34. Thompson PB (1997) Sustainabilty as a Norm. Phil Tech 2(2):75–93Google Scholar
  35. Touré O (1986) Peul du Ferlo. Ed. L’Harmattan, Paris, 77pGoogle Scholar
  36. Touré O, Planchon FKL (2008) La difficile intégration de l’élevage dans les politiques agricoles. In: Dahou T (ed) Libéralisation et politique agricole au Sénégal. CREPOS – KARTALA – ENDA GRAF DIAPOLGoogle Scholar
  37. Tourrand JF (2000) L’élevage dans la révolution agricole au Waalo, delta du fleuve Sénégal. QUAE/Cirad, 165p. ISBN: 2-87614-404-2Google Scholar
  38. Tourrand JF, Duarte LG, Valarié P, Capdevila L, Coronato FR, Faye A, Oman MA, Daoud I, Strankmann P, Long R, Ding L, Wedderburn L, Morales HG, Duteurtre G, Sraïri MT, Fleury P, Lasseur J, Waquil PD (2015) Livestock policy: progressive globalization led by market, focused on food quality and safety in the past, environmental issue currently and new human-animal relationship in the future. International Grassland Congress, Delhi, India, Nov. 2015Google Scholar
  39. Tourrand JF, Neumeister D, Daoud I, Morales H, Bendahan AB, Long R, Faye A, Strankmann P, Sraïri MT, Basuno E, Hamadeh S, Wedderburn L (2016) Regards croisés sur l’attractivité du métier d’éleveur? Colloque Journées Rurales – La Renaissance rurale d’un siècle à l’autre? 23–27 mai 2016. Toulouse, FranceGoogle Scholar
  40. Wood CH, Porro R (2002) Deforestation and land use in the Amazon. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, 386 pGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.IAV Hassan II – Hassan II Institute of Agronomy and Veterinary MedicineRabatMorocco
  2. 2.DVM, Center for International Cooperation in Agricultural Research for Development (CIRAD)MontpellierFrance
  3. 3.International Center for Tibetan Plateau Ecosystem Management (ICTPEM)Lanzhou UniversityGansu ProvinceChina
  4. 4.Animal Production Scientist, Université Cheikh Anta DiopDakarSenegal
  5. 5.IPA – Institute for Livestock and Agriculture PlanningMontevideoUruguay
  6. 6.CONICET/CENPAT – Patagonia National CenterPuerto MadrynArgentina
  7. 7.Center for International Cooperation in Agricultural Research for Development (CIRAD)DakarSenegal
  8. 8.Agropolis InternationalMontpellierFrance

Personalised recommendations