Advertisement

A Geographical Approach to Socio-ecological Coviability

Chapter
  • 224 Downloads

Abstract

The scientific debate on global ecological change which originates in human activity is dominated by concepts belonging to biological and physical sciences. When these concepts are applied to the social sphere, they distort its analysis. Moreover, a growing number of researchers in social sciences are naturalizing the societies/environments relationships by using these concepts without investigating them. As these approaches seem to me scientifically distorted by a naturalizing ideology, I suggest a geographical approach to socio-ecological coviability, which requires a brief preliminary description of some concepts of the discipline. A geographical analysis supported by other social sciences unveils the naturalizing ideology of social-ecological systems (SES); this concept forms the basis of socio-ecological coviability. The naturalization of social events manifests itself in three common ideas concerned with SES: first, societies may be analyzed as ecosystems; second, SES have a cyclical history; third, their extension and geographic location have scarce importance. Easter Island is a valid example of an ecological and social “collapse,’ so investigating it may help us test the socio-ecological coviability vis-à-vis geo-historical facts. The causes of this collapse do not emanate from the Rapanui SES but from the geographical openings of Easter Island in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Thus, this investigation examines the appropriate geographical conditions of socio-ecological coviability in an “era of globalization.”

Keywords

Geography Socio-ecological system Socio-ecological coviability World system Easter Island Geo-diversity 

References

  1. Acot P (1988) Histoire de l’écologie. Presses Universitaires de France, ParisGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderies JM, Janssen MA, Ostrom E (2004) A framework to analyze the robustness of social-ecological systems from an institutional perspective. Ecol Soc 9(1):18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bahn P, Flenley J (1992) Easter Island, Earth Island. Thames & Hudson, LondonGoogle Scholar
  4. Berkes F, Colding J, Folke C (2003) Introduction. In: Berkes F, Colding J, Folke C (eds) Navigating socio-ecological systems. Building resilience for complexity and change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 1–31Google Scholar
  5. Berque A (1990) Médiance. De milieux en paysages. RECLUS, MontpellierGoogle Scholar
  6. Berque A (1996) Être humains sur la terre. Gallimard-Le Débat, ParisGoogle Scholar
  7. Berque A (2010) Des fondements ontologiques de la crise, et de l’être qui pourrait la dépasser. VertigO 10(1.) http://vertigo.revues.org/9384
  8. Bonneuil C, Fressoz J-B (2013) L’évènement anthropocène. Le Seuil, ParisGoogle Scholar
  9. Braudel F (1979) Civilisation matérielle, économie et capitalisme, XVe-XVIIIe siècles, Le temps du Monde. Armand Colin, ParisGoogle Scholar
  10. Brunet R, Ferras R, Théry H (dir.) (1992) Les mots de la géographie. Dictionnaire critique. GIP RECLUS/La Documentation Française, Montpellier/ParisGoogle Scholar
  11. Caillé A, Chanial Ph, Vandenberghe F (2001) Présentation, in Chassez le naturel… Ecologisme, naturalisme et constructivisme, Revue du MAUSS n° 17. La Découverte, Paris, pp 5–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cools A (1973) L’île de Pâques et la Congrégation des Sacrés Cœurs. Documentation, Rome, M.S. 271 788–95 (972)-5Google Scholar
  13. Crosby A (1986) Ecological imperialism. The biological expansion of Europe, 900–1900. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. Crutzen P (2002) Geology of mankind. Nature 415:23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Deléage J-P (1991) Histoire de l’écologie. Une science de l’homme et de la nature. La Découverte, ParisGoogle Scholar
  16. Descola P (2005) Par-delà nature et culture. Gallimard, ParisGoogle Scholar
  17. Diamond J (1997) Guns, germs, and steel. The fates of human societies, (De l’inégalité parmi les sociétés. Essai sur l’homme et l’environnement dans l’histoire, Paris, Gallimard, 2000)Google Scholar
  18. Diamond J (2005) Collapse. how societies choose to fail or survive. Penguin Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. Diamond J (2007) Easter Island revisited. Science 317:1692–1694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dollfus O (1994) L’espace Monde. Economica, ParisCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fischer S (2005) Island at the end of the world. Reaktion Books, LondonGoogle Scholar
  22. Folke C (2006) Resilience: the emergence of a perspective for social–ecological systems analyses. Glob Environ Chang 16:253–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Folke C et al (2002) Resilience and sustainable development: building adaptive capacity in a world of transformations, ICSU Series on science for sustainable development, vol 3. International Council for Science, ParisGoogle Scholar
  24. Foster BJ, Clark B, York R (2010) The ecological drift. Capitalism’s war on the earth. Monthly Review Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. Fuentes M (ed) (2013) Rapa Nui y la compañía explotadora. Rapa Nui Press, SantiagoGoogle Scholar
  26. Godelier M (1984) L’idéel et le matériel. Fayard, ParisGoogle Scholar
  27. Gotts N (2007) Resilience, panarchy, and world-systems analysis. Ecol Soc 12(1):24. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol12/iss1/art24/ CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Grenier C (2002a) Océaniques ou Américaines? Analyse comparative du rattachement aux Amériques des Galapagos et de l’île de Pâques. Mappemonde 66:38–44Google Scholar
  29. Grenier C (2002b) How tourism reduces geodiversity and how it could be different: the Galapagos archipelago and Easter Island cases. In: di Castri F, Balaji V (eds) Tourism, biodiversity and information. Backhuys, Leiden, pp 233–255Google Scholar
  30. Grenier C (2003) Gardeer l’espace: la notion de géodiversité et la conservation du patrimoine littoral, Océanis, fascicule 28–1/2: Environnement, politiques publiques et dynamique des activités littorales, pp 233–251Google Scholar
  31. Grenier C (2005) La patrimonialisation comme mode d’adaptation géographique. Galápagos et île de Pâques. In: Cormier-Salem M-C, Juhé-Beaulaton D, Boutrais J, Roussel B (eds) (dir) Patrimoines naturels aux suds, Territoires, identités et stratégies locales. IRD Editions, Paris, pp 475–513Google Scholar
  32. Grenier C (2008) La gestion de parcs nationaux mondialisés dans des régions à forte géodiversité. Corcovado (Costa Rica), Galapagos (Equateur), Rapa Nui (Chili). In: Héritier S. et Laslaz L., dir., Les parcs nationaux dans le monde. Ellipses, Paris, pp 123–142Google Scholar
  33. Grenier C (2014) Géodiversité et mondialisation. Les fondements géographiques de la diversité terrestre et de son érosion, volume scientifique d’Habilitation à Diriger des Recherches, Université de La RochelleGoogle Scholar
  34. Holling CS (2001) Understanding the complexity of economic, ecological, and social systems. Ecosystems 4:390–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hornborg A, McNeill J, Martinez-Alier J (eds) (2007) Rethinking environmental history: world–system history and global environmental change. AltaMira Press, LanhamGoogle Scholar
  36. Hughes JD (2009) An environmental history of the world. Routledge, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hunt T (2006) Rethinking the fall of: new evidence points to an alternative explanation for a civilization’s collapse. Am Sci 94:412–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hunt T (2007) Rethinking Easter Island’s ecological catastrophe. J Archaeol Sci 34:485–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hunt T, Lipo C (2007) Chronology, deforestation and “collapse”: evidence vs. faith in Rapa Nui prehistory. Rapa Nui J 21(2):85–97Google Scholar
  40. Hunt T, Lipo C (2011) The statues that walked. Unraveling the mystery of Easter Island. Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  41. Judkins G, Smith M, Keys E (2008) Determinism within human–environment research and the rediscovery of environmental causation. Geogr J 174(1):17–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kirch P (2000) On the road of the winds. An archeological history of the Pacific Islands before European contact. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  43. Kirch P (2010) Peopling of the Pacific: a holistic anthropological perspective. Annu Rev Anthropol 39:131–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lacoste Y (2003) De la géopolitique aux paysages. Dictionnaire de la géographie. Armand Colin, ParisGoogle Scholar
  45. Le Berre M (1992) Territoires. In: Bailly A, Ferras R, Pumain D, dir., 1992, Encyclopédie de Géographie. Economica, Paris, pp 617–638Google Scholar
  46. Lévi-Strauss C (1952) Race et histoire. Albin Michel et UNESCO (2001), ParisGoogle Scholar
  47. Lévy J, Lussault M dir., (2003) Dictionnaire de la géographie et de l’espace des sociétés. Belin, ParisGoogle Scholar
  48. Liu J et al (2007a) Complexity of coupled human and natural systems. Science 317:1513–1516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Liu J et al (2007b) Coupled human and natural systems. Ambio 36(8):639–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Livingstone D (1992) The geographical tradition. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  51. Loti P (1899) L’île de Pâques. Journal d’un aspirant de La Flore, St Cyr sur Loire, Pirot Editeur (2006)Google Scholar
  52. Maffi L (2001) On the interdependance of biological and cultural diversity. In: Maffi L (ed) On biocultural diversity. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, pp 1–50Google Scholar
  53. Marsh G (1864) Man and nature. University of Washington Press, SeattleGoogle Scholar
  54. McCall G (1994) Rapanui. Tradition and survival on Easter Island. University of Hawaii Press, HonoluluGoogle Scholar
  55. McNeil JR (2000) Something new under the sun. An environmental history of the twenthieth-century world. Norton & Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  56. Métraux A (1940) Ethnology of Easter Island, vol 160. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin, HonoluluGoogle Scholar
  57. Murray WE (2006) Geographies of globalization. Routledge, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Olson D et al (2001) Terrestrial ecoregions of the world: a new map of life on earth. Bioscience 51(11):933–938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Olson P, Folke C, Berkes F (2004) Adaptive comanagement for building resilience in social–ecological systems. Environ Manag 34(1):75–90Google Scholar
  60. Orliac C (1998) Données nouvelles sur la composition de la flore de l’île de Pâques. Journal de la Société des océanistes 107(2):135–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Passet R (2010) Les grandes représentations du monde et de l’économie. Les Liens qui Libèrent, ParisGoogle Scholar
  62. Peiser B (2005) From Genocide to Ecocide: the Rape of Rapa Nui. Energy Environ 16(3–4):513–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ponting C (1991) A green history of the world (Le viol de la Terre, Paris, NiL, 2000)Google Scholar
  64. Porteous D (1981) The modernization of Easter Island, Western geographical series vol. 19. University of Victoria, VictoriaGoogle Scholar
  65. Radkau J (2008) Nature and power. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  66. Ratzel F (1897) Géographie politique. Fayard, ParisGoogle Scholar
  67. Reclus E (1905) L’Homme et la Terre, Introduction et choix de textes par B. Giblin. La Découverte, ParisGoogle Scholar
  68. Rist G (1996) Le développement. Histoire d’une croyance occidentale. Presses de Sciences Po, ParisGoogle Scholar
  69. Rockström J et al (2009) Planetary boundaries: exploring the safe operating space for humanity. Ecol Soc 14(2):32. www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol14/iss2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Routledge K (1919) The mystery of Easter Island. Adventures Unlimited Press, Kempton, (1998)Google Scholar
  71. Sahlins M (1976) The use and abuse of biology. An anthropological critique of sociobiology (Critique de la sociobiologie, Paris, Gallimard, 1976)Google Scholar
  72. Spengler O (1921) Le déclin de l’Occident. Gallimard, ParisGoogle Scholar
  73. Steffen W, Crutzen P, McNeill J (2007) The anthropocene: are humans now overwhelming the great forces of nature? Ambio 36(8):614–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Vargas P, Cristino C (2006) 1000 años en Rapa Nui. Arquelogogía del asentamiento. Editorial Universitaria, Santiago de ChileGoogle Scholar
  75. Vidal de la Blache P (1899) Leçon d’ouverture du cours de géographie. Annales de Géographie 8(38):98–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Walker J, Cooper M (2011) Genealogies of resilience: from systems ecology to the political economy of crisis adaptation. Security Dialogue 42(2):143–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Wallerstein I (1974) The modern world-system 1, capitalist agriculture and the origins of the European world-economy in the sixteenth century. University of California Press, Berkeley, (2011)Google Scholar
  78. Wallerstein I (1983) Historical capitalism (Le capitalisme historique. La Découverte, Paris, 2002)Google Scholar
  79. Wallerstein I (2004) World-systems analysis. an introduction (Comprendre le monde. Introduction à l’analyse des systèmes-monde. La Découverte, Paris, 2006)Google Scholar
  80. Welzer H (2009) Les guerres du climat. Gallimard, ParisGoogle Scholar
  81. Young O, Berkhout F, Gallopin G, Janssen M, Ostrom E, van der Leeuw S (2006) The globalization of socio-ecological systems: an agenda for scientific research. Glob Environ Chang 16:304–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nantes University, UMR CNRS 6554 LETG-GéolittomerNantesFrance

Personalised recommendations