Advertisement

The Context of Online Teaching and Learning: Neoliberalism, Marketization and Online Teaching

  • Jacqueline BaxterEmail author
  • George Callaghan
  • Jean McAvoy
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter introduces the context in which online teaching takes place within Higher Education (HE). It begins with an outline of the political and economic climate, moving on to describe neo-liberal discourses that are influencing and affecting teaching staff and students. We then take a diachronic look at the ways in which new innovations have been received throughout history, before moving onto the realities of teaching and learning online. Examining the role of academics in online teaching leads into a description of the particular context of The Open University and the evolution of its teaching and place in HE.

Keywords

Online teaching Online learning Higher education eLearning Technology enhanced learning Distance learning Neoliberalism 

References

  1. Allen, E., & Seaman, J. (2017). Digital learning compass: Distance education enrollement report 2017 (Babson Survey Research Group. US Digital Learning Compass, Ed.).Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, T. (2004). Teaching in an online learning context (2nd Rev. ed.). Athabasca: Athabasca University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Appadurai, A. (1996). Modernity at large: Cultural dimensions of globalization (Vol. 1). Minnesota: Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  4. Barak, A., & Gluck-Ofri, O. (2007). Degree and reciprocity of self-disclosure in online forums. CyberPsychology and Behavior, 10(3), 407–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baxter, J. (2010a). Bien dans sa Peau : An investigation into the role of professional learning on the online teaching identities of HE Lecturers. http://oro.open.ac.uk/26313/
  6. Baxter, J. (2010b, December 7–11). Traversing the Borderlands: Online academic identities for a new HE world. In Society for Research into Higher Education Newer Researchers Conference, The Celtic Manor, Cardiff.Google Scholar
  7. Baxter, J. (2011). Who am I and what keeps me going ? Profiling the distance learning student. Positive Futures for higher education; connections, communities and criticality, The Celtic Manor, Wales.Google Scholar
  8. Baxter, J. (2012). Who am I and what keeps me going? Profiling the distance student. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 13(4), 107–129.Google Scholar
  9. Baxter, J. (2015). The open university: A history (Book review). London: Taylor and Francis, International Journal of Lifelong Learning.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Becher, T., & Trowler, P. (2001). Academic tribes and territories: Intellectual enquiry and the culture of disciplines. London: McGraw-Hill Education.Google Scholar
  11. Beck, J., & Young, M. F. D. (2005). The assault on the professions and the restructuring of academic and professional identities: A Bernsteinian analysis. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 26(2), 183–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boettcher, J. V., & Conrad, R. M. (2016). The online teaching survival guide: Simple and practical pedagogical tips. London: Wiley.Google Scholar
  13. Boitshwarelo, B. (2011). Proposing an integrated research framework for connectivism: Utilising theoretical synergies. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 12(3), 161–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Carr, N. (2010). The shallows: How the internet is changing the way we think, read and remember. London: Atlantic Books.Google Scholar
  15. Clarke, J. (2007). Citizen-consumers and public service reform: At the limits of neo-liberalism? Policy Futures in Education, 5(2), 239–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Davies, S. R., & Bartholomew, P. (2017). How does technology -enhanced learning contribue to teaching excellence ? Digifest Birmingham Online at: https://www.jisc.ac.uk/digifest. Accessed 10 Oct 2017.
  17. Deacon, B. (1997). Global social policy: International organizations and the future of welfare. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  18. Dewey, J. (1916). Democracy and education. Pennsylvania State University. http://library.um.ac.id/images/stories/ebooks/Juni10/democracy%20and%20education%20-%20john%20dewey.pdf. Accessed 24 Aug 2016.
  19. Duit, R., & Treagust, D. F. (1998). Learning in science: From behaviourism towards social constructivism and beyond. International Handbook of Science Education, 1(Part 1), 3–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Earney, L., Davies, S., McKean, P., & McGregor, A. (2017). Jisc Digifest 2017-Plenary. Jisc Digifest Birmingham, Birmingham City University, 14–15 March 2017.Google Scholar
  21. Flavin, M. (2016). Technology-enhanced learning and higher education. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 32(4), 632–645. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxrep/grw028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gale, K., Wheeler, S., & Kelly, P. (2007). Learning in cyberspace: An examination of changes in professional identity and practice style in an online problem-based learning environment. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 8(4), 11.Google Scholar
  23. Garrison, D. R., & Cleveland-Innes, M. (2005). Facilitating cognitive presence in online learning: Interaction is not enough. The American Journal of Distance Education, 19(3), 133–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gourlay, L., & Stevenson, J. (2017). Teaching excellence in higher education: Critical perspectives. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  25. Harris, S. (2005). Rethinking academic identities in neo-liberal times. Teaching in Higher Education, 10(4), 421–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Henkel, M. (2005). Academic identity and autonomy in a changing policy environment. Higher Education, 49(1), 155–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Henry, M., Lingard, B., Rizvi, F., & Taylor, S. (Eds.). (2001). The OECD, globalisation and education policy. In G. Neave (Ed.), Issues in higher education. Bingley: Emerald Pubishing Limited.Google Scholar
  28. Herbert, M. (2006). Staying the course: A study in online student satisfaction and retention. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 9(4). https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1108805
  29. Huett, J. B., Kalinowski, K. E., Moller, L., & Huett, K. C. (2008). Improving the motivation and retention of online students through the use of ARCS-based e-mails. The American Journal of Distance Education, 22(3), 159–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Illeris, K. (Ed.). (2009). Contemporary theories of learning : Learning theorists in their own words. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  31. Janssen, D., & Kies, R. (2005). Online forums and deliberative democracy. Acta Politica, 40(3), 317–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lee, J., & Martin, L. (2017). Investigating students’ perceptions of motivating factors of online class discussions. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, [S.l.], 18(5), ISSN 1492–3831. Available at: http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/2883. Accessed 25 Aug 2017. doi: https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v18i5.2883.
  33. Lingard, B., Rizvi, F., & Taylor, S. (2003). Globalisation and changing education policy. In M. Henry, B. Lingard, F. Rizvi, & S. Taylor (Eds.), The OECD, globalisation and education policy (pp. 19–37). Bingley: Emerald.Google Scholar
  34. Marsick, V. J., & Watkins, K. (1990). Informal and incidental learning in the workplace. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  35. McQuiggan, C. A. (2007). The role of faculty development in online teaching’s potential to question teaching beliefs and assumptions. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 10(3), 1–13.Google Scholar
  36. Muilenburg, L., & Berge, Z. L. (2001). Barriers to distance education: A factor-analytic study. American Journal of Distance Education, 15(2), 7–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. O’Brien, B. S. (2002). Online student retention: Can it be done? In P. Barker & S. Rebelsky (Eds.), Proceedings of world conference on educational Mutimedia, hypermedia and telecommunications. Cheasapeake: AACE.Google Scholar
  38. OECD. (1995). Governance in transition: Public management reforms in OECD countries. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  39. Power, M. (1997). The audit society: Rituals of verification. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Radice, H. (2013). How we got here: UK higher education under neoliberalism. ACME: An International Journal for Critical Geographies, 12(2), 407–418.Google Scholar
  41. Rheingold, H. (2012). Net smart: How to thrive online. London: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  42. Richardson, J. C., & Alsup, J. (2015). From the classroom to the keyboard: How seven teachers created their online teacher identities. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 16(1), 142–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Riding, R. J., & Sadler-Smith, E. (1997). Cognitive style and learning strategies: Some implications for training design. International Journal of Training and Development, 1(3), 199–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rogers, C. (1995). A way of being. London: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.Google Scholar
  45. Rushby, N., & Surry, D. (2016, March). Wiley handbook of learning technology. London: Wiley-Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Salmon, G. (1998). Developing learning through effective online moderation. Active Learning, 9(December), 3–8.Google Scholar
  47. Salmon, G. (2002). Moderating: The key to teaching and learning online. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  48. Schreurs, B., Van den Beemt, A., Prinsen, F., Witthaus, G., Conole, G., & De Laat, M. (2014). An investigation into social learning activities by practitioners in open educational practices. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 15(4), 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Siemens, G. (2005). Connectivism: A learning theory for the digital age. Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, 2(1), 3–10.Google Scholar
  50. Skinner, B. (1968). The technology of teaching. New York: Appleton-century-crofts.Google Scholar
  51. Szucs, A., Tait, A., Vidal, M., & Bernath, U. (2009). Distance and E-learning in transition: Learning innovation, technology and social challenges. London: Wiley.Google Scholar
  52. Thomas, A. (2007). Youth online: Identity and literacy in the digital age. London: Peter Lang Publishing.Google Scholar
  53. Tobin, T. J., Mandernach, B. J., & Taylor, A. H. (2015). Evaluating online teaching. London: Wiley.Google Scholar
  54. Turkle, S. (2011). Life on the screen. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  55. Van der Veer, R. (2007). Lev Vygotsky. London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  56. Veletsianos, G. (2016). Social media in academia: Networked scholars. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  57. Weinbren, D. (2014). The Open University: A history. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Weller, M. (2011). The Digital scholar: How technology is transforming academic practice. Bloomsbury Open Access. https://www.bloomsburycollections.com/book/the-digital-scholar-how-technology-is-transforming-scholarly-practice/. Accessed 7 July 2016.
  59. Wenger, E. C. (2008). Communities of practice: Learning, meaning, and identity (18th printing, first published 1998). Cambridge: Cambridge University.Google Scholar
  60. Wolf, M. (2008). Proust and the squid: The story and science of the reading brain. London: Icon Books.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jacqueline Baxter
    • 1
    Email author
  • George Callaghan
    • 2
  • Jean McAvoy
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Public Leadership and Social EnterpriseOpen UniversityMilton KeynesUK
  2. 2.Department of EconomicsOpen UniversityMilton KeynesUK
  3. 3.School of PsychologyOpen UniversityMilton KeynesUK

Personalised recommendations