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Bottom-Up Top-Down Cues for Weakly-Supervised Semantic Segmentation

  • Qibin Hou
  • Daniela MassicetiEmail author
  • Puneet Kumar Dokania
  • Yunchao Wei
  • Ming-Ming Cheng
  • Philip H. S. Torr
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10746)

Abstract

We consider the task of learning a classifier for semantic segmentation using weak supervision in the form of image labels specifying objects present in the image. Our method uses deep convolutional neural networks (cnns) and adopts an Expectation-Maximization (EM) based approach. We focus on the following three aspects of EM: (i) initialization; (ii) latent posterior estimation (E-step) and (iii) the parameter update (M-step). We show that saliency and attention maps, bottom-up and top-down cues respectively, of images with single objects (simple images) provide highly reliable cues to learn an initialization for the EM. Intuitively, given weak supervisions, we first learn to segment simple images and then move towards the complex ones. Next, for updating the parameters (M step), we propose to minimize the combination of the standard softmax loss and the KL divergence between the latent posterior distribution (obtained using the E-step) and the likelihood given by the cnn. This combination is more robust to wrong predictions made by the E step of the EM algorithm. Extensive experiments and discussions show that our method is very simple and intuitive, and outperforms the state-of-the-art method with a very high margin of 3.7% and 3.9% on the PASCAL VOC12 train and test sets respectively, thus setting new state-of-the-art results.

Notes

Acknowledgments

Qibin Hou, Yunchao Wei and Ming-Ming Cheng were sponsored by NSFC (61620106008, 61572264), CAST (YESS20150117), Huawei Innovation Research Program (HIRP), and IBM Global SUR award. Daniela Massiceti, Punnet K. Dokania and Philip H.S. Torr were sponsored by ERC grant ERC-2012-AdG 321162-HELIOS. Ms Massiceti was also sponsored by the Skye Foundation. We thank all sponsors for their support.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nankai UniversityTianjinChina
  2. 2.University of OxfordOxfordUK
  3. 3.NUSSingaporeSingapore

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