Designated market areas, or media markets, allow us to look at presidential speechmaking without geographical constraints. O’Brien shows the majority of administrations prefer to give speeches in large media markets. Most presidents, if they travel to small markets, do so only during election campaigns. Second-term administrations are also usually different than first-term ones. First-term presidents will often have a bit more diversity, while second-term administrations go most often to larger areas. Consequently, most presidents try to get the most exposure with the fewest number of speeches. George W. Bush first-term patterns involve some of the smallest media markets in the USA. He appears as an outlier unlike almost every other administration because presidents before and after him behave in similar ways in both terms.