Almost all nations have been the victims of others at one time or another. The nationalist movements that grew up with industrialisation and mass education in the nineteenth century fed on stories of their ancestors’ suffering. They freed the Balkans from Ottoman control but their anger has continued to tear the area apart down to the collapse of Yugoslavia. Nationalist movements played a major part in causing the two World Wars and they still continue to threaten the unity of Spain, the United Kingdom and other countries. Historical resentments add to the ferment in the Muslim world and cause bitter arguments between China, Japan, Taiwan and South Korea over the history of the Second World War.