Integrating Workplace Spirituality and Sustainability for Organizational Success

Part of the Palgrave Studies in Workplace Spirituality and Fulfillment book series (PSTWSP)


The central theme of this chapter is that the combination of spirituality and sustainability are beneficial for organizational success. Because limited research exists concerning the relationships among sustainability, spirituality and organizational success, much of the focus of this chapter will be on the development of an argument for, and a conceptual framework from which to examine the proposed relationship of these constructs. Systems thinking, the Quadruple Bottom Line for Sustainability, and Man-Environment-Organism (M-E-O) are introduced as frameworks through which to understand the proposed relationship. Flourishing, conscious capitalism and spiritual entrepreneurship are introduced within the context of the chapter theme. The chapter concludes with an examination of Laloux’s proposed model of organizational evolution, and the emerging evolutionary “teal” organization.


Workplace Spirituality Laloux Quadruple Bottom Line Conscious Capitalism Navdanya 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Affeldt, D. L., & MacDonald, D. A. (2010). The relationship of spirituality to work and organizational attitudes and behaviors in a sample of employees from a health care system. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 42(2), 192–208. Retrieved October 2, 2017, from
  2. Altaf, A., & Awan, M. A. (2011). Moderating effect of workplace spirituality on the relationship of job overload and job satisfaction. Journal of Business Ethics, 104(1), 93–99. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bouckaert, L. (2014). Spirituality: The missing link in business ethics. In L. Zsolnai (Ed.), The spiritual dimension of business ethics and sustainability management (pp. 15–26). Heidelberg: Springer.
  4. Burack, E. H. (1999). Spirituality in the workplace. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 12(4), 280–292. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Case, P., & Gosling, J. (2010). The spiritual organization: Critical reflections on the instrumentality of workplace spirituality. Journal of Management, Spirituality and Religion, 7(4), 257–282. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cavanagh, G. (1999). Spirituality for managers: Context and critique. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 12(3), 186–195. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chatterjee, A., & Naqvi, F. (2010). Spirituality in organizational life: An empirical study of spirituality and job attitudes. Abhigyan, 28(3), 18–29. Retrieved February 17, 2018, from
  8. Chawla, V., & Guda, S. (2010). Individual spirituality at work and its relationship with job satisfaction, propensity to leave and job commitment: An exploratory study among sales professionals. Journal of Human Values, 16(2), 157–167. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Crawford, A., Hubbard, S. S., Lonis-Shumate, S. R., & O’Neill, M. (2009). Workplace spirituality and employee attitudes within the lodging environment. Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism, 8, 64–81. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dhiman, S., & Marques, J. (2011). The role and need of offering workshops and courses on workplace spirituality. Journal of Management Development, 30(9), 816–835. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dunn, E. W., Aknin, L. B., & Norton, M. I. (2008). Spending money on others promotes happiness. Science, 319(5870), 1687–1688. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Elkington, J., Tickell, S., & Lee, M. (2007). SustainAbility. 20 Years of global leadership [online]. London: SustainAbility. Retrieved February 22, 2008, from
  13. Esty, D. C., & Winston, A. S. (2006). Green to gold: How smart companies use environmental strategy to innovate, create value, and build competitive advantage. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Fry, L. W. (2003). Toward a theory of spiritual leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 14(6), 693–729. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fry, L. W., & Slocum, J. (2008). Maximizing the triple bottom line through a strategic scorecard business model of spiritual leadership. Organizational Dynamics, 31(1), 86–96. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Geh, E., & Tan, G. (2009). Spirituality at work in a changing world: Managerial and research implications. Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion, 6(4), 287–300. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Giacalone, R. A., & Jurkiewicz, C. J. (2010). The science of workplace spirituality. In R. A. Giacalone & C. J. Jurkiewicz (Eds.), Handbook of workplace spirituality and organizational performance (2nd ed., pp. 3–26). New York: M. E. Sharpe.Google Scholar
  18. Guillory, W. A. (1997). The living organization – Spirituality in the workplace. Salt Lake City, UT: Innovations International.Google Scholar
  19. Gupta, M., Kumar, V., & Singh, M. (2013). Creating satisfied employees through workplace spirituality: A study of the private insurance sector in Punjab (India). Journal of Business Ethics, 122(1), 79–88. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Han, Y., Lu, X., & Li, Z. (2010). In search of excellence: Spiritual training program and junior managers counterproductive work behavior in China. Human Resource Management International Digest, 18(2), 10–12. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hicks, D. A. (2003). Religion and the workplace: Pluralism, spirituality, leadership. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Holthaus, G. (2012). Learning native wisdom: What traditional cultures teach us about subsistence, sustainability, and spirituality. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky.Google Scholar
  23. Hong, Y. J. (2012). Identifying spirituality in workers: A strategy for retention of community health professionals. Journal of Social Service Research, 38(20), 175–186. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jaret, P. (2017, December). Common ground. Mindful, 64–70.Google Scholar
  25. Jones, P. H., & Upward, A. (2014). Caring for the future: The systemic design of flourishing enterprises. The Third Symposium of Relating Systems Thinking and Design (RSD3), Oslo. 1–8. Slides and other materials from conference presentation. Retrieved February 5, 2018, from
  26. Jung, C. G. (1934–1954). The archetypes and the collective unconscious. (In 1981 2nd ed. Collected works Vol. 9 Part 1). Princeton, NJ: Bollingen.Google Scholar
  27. Kinjerski, V., & Skrypnek, B. J. (2008). The promise of spirit at work: Increasing job satisfaction and organizational commitment and reducing turnover and absenteeism in long-term care. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 34(10), 17–15. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kolodinsky, R. W., Giacalone, R. A., & Jurkiewicz, C. L. (2008). Workplace values and outcomes: Exploring personal, organizational, and interactive workplace spirituality. Journal of Business Ethics, 81(2), 465–480. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Krahnke, K., Giacalone, R. A., & Jurkiewicz, C. L. (2003). Point-counterpoint: Measuring workplace spirituality. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 16(4), 396–405. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Krishnakumar, S., & Neck, C. P. (2002). The “what”, “why” and “how” of spirituality in the workplace. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 17(3), 153–164. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Laloux, F. (2014). Reinventing organizations: A guide to creating organizations inspired by the next stage of human consciousness. Brussels: Nelson Parker.Google Scholar
  32. Laszlo, C., Saillant, R., Pose, I. B., & Brown, J. S. (2014). Flourishing enterprise: The new spirit of business. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Lázár, I. (2000). Mothers and Mother Nature: Attachment, detachment and human ecological integrity. In P. J. Crabbe et al. (Eds.), Implementing ecological integrity restoring regional and global environmental and human health. NATO Science Series: IV Earth and Environment Sciences. Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  34. Lázár, I. (2004). Spirituality and human ecosystems. In Spirituality and ethics in management (pp. 87–96). Dordrecht: Springer.
  35. Lovelock, J. E. (1972). Gaia as seen through the atmosphere. Atmospheric Environment, 6(8), 579–580. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Marques, J., Dhiman, S., & King, R. (2010). Exploring the link between spirituality and sustainability. Business Renaissance Quarterly, 5(1), 19. Retrieved December 11, 2017, from
  37. Marschke, E., Prezioni, R., & Harrington, W. (2009). Professionals and executives support a relationship between organizational commitment and spirituality in the workplace. Journal of Business and Economics Research, 7(8), 33–48. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Milliman, J., Czaplewski, A. J., & Ferguson, J. (2003). Workplace spirituality and employee work attitudes: An exploratory empirical assessment. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 16(4), 426–447. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Paloutzian, R. F., Emmons, R. A., & Keortge, S. G. (2003). Spiritual well-being, spiritual intelligence, and healthy workplace policy. In R. A. Giacolone & C. L. Jurkiewicz (Eds.), Handbook of workplace spirituality and organizational performance (pp. 123–137). New York: M.E. Sharpe.Google Scholar
  40. Pawar, B. S. (2008). Two approaches to workplace spirituality facilitation: A comparison and implications. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 29(6), 544–567. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pawar, B. S. (2009). Individual spirituality, workplace spirituality and work attitudes: An empirical test of direct and interaction effects. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 30(8), 759–777. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pfeffer, J. (2010). Business and the spirit. In R. A. Giacalone & C. L. Jurkiewicz (Eds.), Handbook of workplace spirituality and organizational performance (2nd ed., pp. 27–43). New York: M. E. Sharp.Google Scholar
  43. Rainey, D. L. (2008). Transparency, openness, and accountability: A new imperative. In M. V. Russo (Ed.), Environmental management: Readings and cases (pp. 228–242). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  44. Reave, L. (2005). Spiritual values and practices related to leadership effectiveness. Leadership Quarterly, 16(5), 655–687. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Rego, A., & Pina e Cunha, M. (2008). Workplace spirituality and organizational commitment: An empirical study. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 21(1), 53–75. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Riasudeen, S., & Prabavathy, R. (2011). Relationship of workplace spirituality and work attitude in manufacturing organization. Global Management Review, 5(4), 29–37. Retrieved September 9, 2017, from
  47. Russell, P. (2008). The global brain: The awakening Earth in a new century (3rd ed.). Edinburgh: Floris Books.Google Scholar
  48. Saks, A. M. (2011). Workplace spirituality and employee engagement. Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion, 8(4), 317–340. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Senge, P. (with Smith, B., Kruschwitz, N., Laut, J., & Schley, S.). (2008). The necessary revolution: How individuals and organizations are working together to create a sustainable world. New York: Random House Digital.Google Scholar
  50. Shastri, V., & Banerjee, P. M. (2010). From corporate social responsibility to global social entrepreneurship. In P. M. Banerjee & V. Shastri (Eds.), Social responsibility and environmental sustainability in business: How organizations handle profits and social duties (pp. 1–14). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  51. Smith, C. (2009). Reconnecting with Earth: Ecospirituality as the missing dimension in spirituality and sustainability education. International Handbook of Education for Spirituality, Care and Wellbeing, 653–675.
  52. Spector, D. (2012, March 1). 10 more reasons companies should care about sustainability. New York: Business Insider. Retrieved January 4, 2018, from
  53. Targowski, A. (2012). Spirituality 2.0—A condition for a wise civilization. Dialogue and Universalism, 22(2), 133–143. Retrieved November 21, 2017, from
  54. Tate, W. (2009). The search for leadership: An organisational perspective. Charmouth: Triarchy Press.Google Scholar
  55. TerraCycle. (2018a). About TerraCycle. Trenton, NJ: Author. Retrieved March 14, 2018, from
  56. TerraCycle. (2018b). The TerraCycle breakthrough. Trenton, NJ: Author. Retrieved March 14, 2018, from
  57. Usman, A., & Danish, R. Q. (2010). Spiritual consciousness in banking managers and its impact on job satisfaction. International Business Research, 2(3), 65–72. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Van Schalkwyk, A. (2011). Sacredness and sustainability: Searching for a practical eco-spirituality. Religion and Theology, 18(1–2), 77–92. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Virmani, A., & Lépineux, F. (2014). Spiritual-based entrepreneurship for an alternative food culture: The transformational power of Navdanya. In L. Zsolnai (Ed.), The spiritual dimension of business ethics and sustainability management (pp. 125–142). Heidelberg: Springer.
  60. Walker, S. (2013). Design and spirituality: Material culture for a wisdom economy. Design Issues, 29(3), 89–107. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Word, J. (2012). Engaging work as a calling: Examining the link between spirituality and job involvement. Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion, 9(2), 147–166. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. World Commission on Environment and Development. (1987). Our common future. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  63. Yong, J., Kim, J., Park, J., Seo, I., & Swinton, J. (2011). Effects of a spirituality training program on the spiritual and psychosocial well-being of hospital middle manager nurses in Korea. Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 42(6), 280–288. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Business, Legal and EntrepreneurshipSeminole State College of FloridaHeathrowUSA

Personalised recommendations