Cell-Based Nanotechnology—Interactions and Energetics

  • Mohammad Ashrafuzzaman


Cells have natural nanometer (nm) scale structures and nanotechnologies active inside. In earlier chapters, we have addressed enough of the nm-dimensional aspects of cells. Cell membrane thickness is of the order of 3–5 nm [for details, see Ashrafuzzaman and Tuszynski (Membrane Biophysics. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 2012a)], membrane constituent lipid cross section is of the order of 0.6 nm2 (Eze in Biochemical Education 19(4), 1991), membrane-transporting integral ion channels maintain nm dimensions in lengths and cross sections as their dimensions are limited within membrane dimensions, microtubule filaments are of the order of 25 nm diameters, etc.


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Ashrafuzzaman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry, College of ScienceKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia

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