Match-fixing, whether to gain sporting advantage or facilitate gains from betting, has been present throughout the history of organised sport. But its prevalence appears to have increased sharply since the Millennium. The chapter links this greater prevalence to large increases in the liquidity of sports betting markets such that criminals can place larger bets and make greater profit from buying fixes from players. The problem is aggravated by much of the liquidity residing in illegal or barely regulated markets where sources of bets are essentially untraceable by investigators. Mitigation of risks from match-fixing would be achieved by large countries providing good-value legal and regulated betting facilities to deprive the illegal markets of liquidity. Since such reform is unlikely, sports need to address the willingness of their athletes to supply fixes. This requires improvements in sports governance as well as investment in prevention and detection programmes.
- Balliauw, M., Verlinden, T., Van Den Spiegel, T., & Van Hecke, J. (2017). Towards a Sustainable Financial Model for Professional Tennis Players (Working Paper 2017-06). Faculty of Applied Economics, University of Antwerp.Google Scholar
- Boehm, F. (2015). Are Men and Women Equally Corrupt? Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute (U4 Brief 2015:6, http://www.u4.no/publications/are-men-and-women-equally-corrupt/).
- Boniface, P., Lacarrière, S., & Verschuuren, P. (2012). Paris sportifs et corruption. Paris: Iris Éditions. (in French).Google Scholar
- Cheloukhine, S. (2013). Match Fixing in Soccer: Organization, Structure and Policing: A Russian Perspective. In M. R. Haberfeld & D. Sheehan (Eds.), Match Fixing in International Sport: Existing Processes, Law Enforcement, and Prevention Strategies (pp. 113–132). Cham: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dagaev, D., & Sonin K. (2017). Winning by Losing. Incentive Incompatibility in Multiple Qualifiers. Journal of Sports Economics, to appear, published online, May, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1177/1527002517704022.
- Forrest, D. (2012a). The Threat to Football from Betting-Related Corruption. International Journal of Sport Finance, 7, 99–116.Google Scholar
- Forrest, D. (2012b). Online Gambling an Economics Perspective. In R. J. Williams, R. T. Wood, & J. Parke (Eds.), Routledge International Handbook of Internet Gambling (pp. 29–45). Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Forrest, D. (2015). The Big Good Friday Football Fix of 1915: Man Utd 2- Liverpool 0, The Conversation, http://theconversation.com/the-big-good-friday-football-fix-of-1915-man-utd-2-liverpool-0-39552.
- Forrest, D., & McHale, I. G. (2015). An Evaluation of Sportradar’s Fraud Detection System. University of Liverpool. https://integrity.sportradar.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/18/2016/03/Sportradar-Security-Services_Univsersity-of-Liverpool_An-Evaluation-of-the-FDS.pdf.
- Forrest, D., & Parry, R. (2016). The Keys to Sports Integrity in the United States: Legalized, Regulated Sports Betting. Washington, DC: American Gaming Association. https://www.americangaming.org/research/white-papers/key-sports-integrity-united-states-legalized-regulated-sports-betting.
- Fritz, O. (2013). 1970s: Large-Scale Match Fixing Scandal. Deutsche Welle, www.dw.com/en/1970s-large-scale-match-fixing-scandal/a.16931734.
- IRIS. (2017). Preventing Criminal Risks Linked to the Sports Betting Market. Paris: Institut de Relations Internationales et Strategiques.Google Scholar
- Reuter, P., & Rubenstein, J. B. (1978). Fact, Fancy and Organized Crime. Public Interest, 53, 45–67.Google Scholar
- Sport Accord. (2011). Integrity in Sport: Understanding and Predicting Match Fixing. Moudon, Switzerland: Sport Accord.Google Scholar
- Strumpf, K. (2003). Illegal Sports Bookmakers (Working Paper). Department of Economics, University of North Carolina: Chapel Hill. Accessed at http://www.unc.edu/~cigar/.
- Taylor, B. A., &. Trogdon, J. G. (2002). Losing to Win: Tournament Incentives in the National Basketball Association. Journal of Labor Economics, 20(1), 23–41.Google Scholar
- Trumpyte, R. (2016). The Gap Between Sports Institutions and the Public Will: Responses to Match-Fixing in Lithuania. In Transparency International, Global Corruption Report: Sport (pp. 250–253). Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Van Reeth. (2013). TV Demand for the Tour de France: The Importance of Stage Characteristics Versus Outcome Uncertainty, Patriotism, and Doping. International Journal of Sport Finance, 8(1), 39–60.Google Scholar
- Van Rompuy, B. (2015). The Odds of Match Fixing. Facts and Figures on the Integrity Risk of Certain Sports Bets. T.M.C. Asser Instituut: International Sports Centre.Google Scholar