‘Manipulation’ is a word capable of being interpreted in different ways, and the scope of this volume is therefore wide, with contributors defining the problem more or less narrowly than each other. But common to all is the understanding that manipulation involves some deviation from an idealised view of sport such that ‘the spirit of sport’ is compromised to enable one or more stakeholders to make personal or corporate gain. Organised sport of course likes to project itself in terms of its guardianship of an innocent world underpinned by the values which comprise that ‘spirit of sport’. For example, the World Anti-Doping Agency, (2015, p. 14) provides the rationale for its existence as being to ‘preserve what is intrinsically valuable in sport’, citing values such as ‘ethics, fair play and honesty’, ‘health’, ‘fun and joy’ and ‘respect for rules and laws’. Indeed, Lapham (Money and class in America: Notes and observations on a Civil religion. Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London, p. 151, 1988) argued that the projection of the sense of an innocent world is an essential part of the business of sport since it is so much part of the reason for love of sport. That of course presents a paradox. To an extent, sports businesses depend for their success on the population maintaining a belief in the spirit of sport; but their attempts to gain profit from sport may themselves be perceived as undermining traditional sporting values.
- Cycling Independent Reform Commission. (2015). Report to the President of the Union Cycliste Internationale. Lausanne: Union Cycliste Internationale. www.uci.ch/mm/Document/News/CleanSport/16/87/99/CIRCReport2015_Neutral.pdf.
- Dimant E., & Deutscher C. (2014). The Economics of Corruption in Sport—The Special Case of Doping (Working papers in Economics and Management, 17–2014). Germany: Universität Bielefeld.Google Scholar
- FIFA. (2015). 2014 FIFA World Cup™ Reached 3.2 Billion Viewers, One Billion Watched Final, December 16. http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/news/y=2015/m=12/news=2014-fifa-world-cuptm-reached-3-2-billion-viewers-one-billion-watched–2745519.html.
- Forrest, D. (2012). The Threat to Football From Betting-Related Corruption. International Journal of Sport Finance, 7, 99–116.Google Scholar
- Forrest, D., & McHale, I. G. (2015). An Evaluation of Sportradar’s Fraud Detection System. University of Liverpool. https://integrity.sportradar.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/18/2016/03/Sportradar-Security-Services_Univsersity-of-Liverpool_An-Evaluation-of-the-FDS.pdf.
- Geeraert, A. (2015). Sports Governance Observer 2015: The Legitimacy Crisis in International Sports Governance. Copenhagen: Play The Game and Danish Institute for Sports Studies. http://www.playthegame.org/media/3968653/SGO_report_web.pdf.
- Hughes, J. (2016). Taekwono’s Olympics-Led Rule Changes Sacrifice Tradition for Entertainment. https://sports.vice.com/en_uk/article/53x3d3/taekwondo39s-olympics-led-rule-changes-sacrifice-tradition-for-entertainment-uk-translation.
- Ingle, S. (2017, September 7). Familiar Whiff of Corruption Continues to Taint Olympic Games. The Guardian. www.theguardian.com/sport/2017/sep/07/corruption-olympic-movement-ioc.
- Lapham, L. H. (1988). Money and Class in America: Notes and Observations on a Civil Religion. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.Google Scholar
- Little, I. M. D. (2003). A Critique of Welfare Economics. Oxford: Oxford University Press (first edition published in 1950).Google Scholar
- Rosen, S. (1981). The Economics of Superstars. American Economic Review, 71(5), 845–858.Google Scholar
- Rothenberg, B. (2016, January 27). An Invitation into the Shadowy World of Match Fixing. New York Times. www.nytimes.com/2016/01/28/sports/tennis/australian-open-match-fixing-essay.html?ref=sports&_r=0.
- Roxborough, S. (2016). Rio Olympics Worldwide Audience to Top 3.5 Billion, IOC Estimates, August 18. http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/rio-olympics-worldwide-audience-top-920526.
- Townsend, W. (2017). Table Regulations Changing; Bigger is Better. https://www.ittf.com/2017/04/01/table-regulations-changing-bigger-better/.
- Van Reeth, D. (2012). TV Demand for the Tour de France: The Importance of Stage Characteristics Versus Outcome Uncertainty, Patriotism and Doping. International Journal of Sport Finance, 8(1), 39–60.Google Scholar
- World Anti-Doping Agency. (2015). World Anti-Doping Code, 2015, Montréal: World Anti-Doping Agency. www.wada-ama.org/sites/default/files/resources/files/wada-2015-world-anti-doping-code.pdf.
- World Anti-Doping Agency. (2016). WADA Testing Figures Report. www.wada-ama-org/sites/default/files/2016_anti_doping_testing_figures.pdf.