Population and the Environment

  • Jo. M. Martins
  • Fei Guo
  • David A. Swanson


Population size and growth poses an ecological riddle that has persisted throughout human history.


  1. American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). (2017). AAAS atlas of population and environment. Retrieved August 11, 2017, from
  2. Andreev, K., Kantarova, V., & Bongaarts, J. (2013). Demographic components of future population growth. Population Division, Technical Paper No. 2013/3. New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
  3. Borregaard, N., & Dufey, A. (2002). Environmental effects of foreign investment versus domestic investment in the mining sector in Latin America. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  4. Boserup, E. (1965). The conditions of agricultural growth. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  5. Bredemeier, M. (2002). Anthropogenic effects on forest ecosystems at various spatio-temporal scales. Scientific World Journal, 2, 827–841. Retrieved September 1, 2017, from
  6. Brown, L. R. (1970). Seeds of change. New York: Praeger Publishers.Google Scholar
  7. Carter, R. M., de Freitas, C. R., Goklany, I. M., Holland, D., Lindzen, R. S., Byatt, I., et al. (2006). The Stern review: A dual critique. World Economics, 7(4), 165–232.Google Scholar
  8. Committee on International Science’s Task Force on Global Biodiversity. (1989). Loss of biological diversity: A global crisis requiring international solutions. Washington, D.C: National Science Foundation.Google Scholar
  9. Davis, K. (1945). The world demographic transition. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 237, 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ehrlich, P. (1969). The population bomb. New York: Ballantine.Google Scholar
  11. Environment Canada (EC). (2017). Environment and climate change Canada. Retrieved September 6, 2017, from
  12. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). (2003). World agriculture: Towards 2015/2030—An FAO perspective. London: Earthscan Publications Ltd.Google Scholar
  13. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). (2009). State of the world’s forests 2009. Rome.Google Scholar
  14. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). (2011). The state of the world’s land and water resources for food and agriculture—Managing systems at risk. New York: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  15. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). (2013). Tackling climate change through livestock—A global assessment of emissions and mitigating opportunities. Rome.Google Scholar
  16. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). (2014). FAO statistical yearbook 2013. Rome.Google Scholar
  17. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). (2016). The state of world fisheries and aquaculture. Rome.Google Scholar
  18. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). (2017a). FAOSTAT. Retrieved August 31, 2017, from
  19. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). (2017b). AQUASAT. Retrieved September 5, 2017, from
  20. Hardin, G. (1968). The tragedy of the commons. Science, 3869, 1243–1248.Google Scholar
  21. Hunter, L. M. (2001). The environmental implications of population dynamics. RAND.Google Scholar
  22. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). (2014). Climate change 2014 mitigation of climate change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved August 22, 2017, from
  23. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). (2015). Climate change 2014—Synthesis Report. Geneva. Reteieved September 8, 2017, from
  24. International Energy Agency (IEA). (2016). Key world energy statistics. Paris. Retrieved September 10, 2017, from
  25. Livi-Bacca, M. (2017). A concise history of world population (6th ed.). Chichester: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Meadows, D. H., Meadows, D. L., Randers, J., & Behrens, W. W. (1972). The limits to growth. London: Pan Books.Google Scholar
  27. Morgan, S. P. (2003). Is low fertility a twenty-first-century demographic crisis? Demography, 40(4), 589–603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Murray-Darling Basin Authority (MDBA). (2014). Environmental challenges and issues—The Basin. Retrieved May 27, 2014, from
  29. Raupach, M. R., Marland, G., Ciais, P., Le Quere, C., Canadell, J., Klepper, G., et al. (2007). Global and regional drivers of accelerating CO2 emissions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(24), 10288–10293. Retrieved August 21, 2017, from
  30. Raupach, M. R., Gloor, M., Sarmiento, J. L., Canadell, J. G., Frolicher, T. L., Gasser, T., et al. (2014). The declining rate of atmospheric CO2 by land and oceans sinks. Biosciences, 11(3453–3475). Retrieved August 21, 2017, from Scholar
  31. de Sherbini, A., Carr, D., Cassels, S., & Jiang, L. (2007). Population and the environment. Annual Review of Environmental Resources, 32, 345–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Simon, J. L. (1980). Resources, population, environment: An oversupply of false bad news. Science, New Series, 208(4451), 1431–1437.Google Scholar
  33. Stern, D. I., Common, M. S., & Barbier, E. B. (1996). Economic growth and environmental degradation: The environmental Kuznets curve and sustainable development. World Development, 24(7), 1151–1160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Stern, D. I. (2014). The environmental Kuznets curve: A primer. CCEP Working Paper 1404. Canberra: Australian National University.Google Scholar
  35. Stern, N. (2006). Stern review: The economics of climate change. London: Her Majesty’s Treasury.Google Scholar
  36. Swanson, T. (1995). Uniformity in development and the decline of biological diversity. In T. Swanson (Ed.), The economics and ecology of biodiversity decline (pp. 41–53). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  37. United Nations (UN). (2001). Population, environment and development—The concise report. New York.Google Scholar
  38. United Nations (UN). (2015). Adoption of the Paris agreement. Framework Convention on Climate Change.Google Scholar
  39. United Nations (UN). (2017). World population prospects: The 2017 revision. Volume I: Comprehensive tables. New York.Google Scholar
  40. World Bank (WB). (2010). World development report 2010. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  41. World Bank (WB). (2017a). World development indicators. Retrieved September 10, 2017, from
  42. World Bank (WB). (2017b). GDP per capita, PPP. Retrieved September 10, 2017, from

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Marketing and ManagementMacquarie UniversitySydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Department of SociologyUniversity of California RiversideRiversideUSA

Personalised recommendations