Advertisement

Introduction

  • Jeffrey S. Markowitz
Chapter
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Public Health book series (BRIEFSPUBLIC)

Abstract

Improving knowledge regarding mortality and its determinants is essential to public health. A better understanding of mortality risk and protective factors can help to extend life and enhance its quality. Mortality research has evolved over centuries of time from casual observations focused on individuals to sophisticated studies of groups conducted by social scientists and epidemiologists. Social and demographic risk factors, including socioeconomic status (SES) and factors that occur early in life, are now routinely studied with an emphasis on reducing health disparities that may be linked to mortality risk.

This study will examine all-cause mortality and its determinants among a cohort of professional basketball and football players. Internal comparisons will be made based on a large cohort of former NBA and NFL players. The potential risk factor variables to be studied include race, body mass index (BMI), US birthplace region, number of career years of professional playing experience and player position. Mortality risk will be compared within and between former players in the two leagues. External comparisons of mortality rates will also be conducted between the two groups of professional athletes and the US male general population.

Mortality comparisons between professional basketball (NBA) and football players (NFL) have never been studied before. There have been several separate prior studies that have compared mortality rates between NBA and NFL players versus the general population. However, this previous research has limitations and is largely outdated. The current study seeks to advance knowledge in this important area and provide direction for future research efforts.

Keywords

Mortality and public health Social and demographic risk factors for mortality Health disparities and mortality Mortality comparisons between NBA and NFL players Mortality comparisons between NBA/NFL players and the general population Early life experiences and mortality risk 

References

  1. Arias, E. (2015). United States life tables, 2011. National vital statistics reports. Vol. 64 no. 11. Hyattsville: National Center for Health Statistics.Google Scholar
  2. Bacon, F. (2010). History of life and death (1638). Whitefish: Kessinger.Google Scholar
  3. Baron, S., & Rinsky, R. (1994). Health hazard evaluation report, National Football League players mortality study. Report No. HETA 88-085. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/pdfs/nflfactsheet.pdf
  4. Baron, S. L., Hein, M. J., Lehman, E., & Gersic, C. M. (2012). Body mass index, playing position, race, and the cardiovascular mortality of retired professional football players. American Journal of Cardiology, 109, 889–896.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Berkman, L. F., Kawachi, I., & Glymour, M. M. (2014). Social epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Flegal, K., Graubard, B., Williamson, D., & Gail, M. (2005). Excess deaths associated with underweight, overweight and obesity. JAMA, 293(15), 1861–1867.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Hayward, M. D., & Gorman, B. K. (2004). The long arm of childhood: The influence of early life social conditions on men’s mortality. Demography, 41(1), 87–107.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Hippocrates (400 B.C.E.). On airs, waters, and places, translated by Francis Adams, provided by the internet classics archive. Retrieved from http://classics.mit.edu//Hippocrates/airwatpl.html
  9. Howard, G., Anderson, R. T., Russell, G., Howard, V. J., & Burke, G. L. (2000). Race, socioeconomic status, and cause-specific mortality. Annals of Epidemiology, 10, 214–223.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Julia, C., & Valleron, A. J. (2011). Louis-Rene Villerme (1782–1863), a pioneer in social epidemiology: Re-analysis of his data on comparative mortality in Paris in the early 19th century. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 65(8), 666–670.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Lawler, T., Lawler, F., Gibson, J., & Murray, R. (2012). Does the African-American-White mortality gap persist after playing professional basketball? A 59-year historical cohort study. Annals of Epidemiology, 22, 406–412.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Lehman, E. J., Hein, M. J., Baron, S. L., & Gersic, C. M. (2012). Neurodegenerative causes of death among retired National Football League players. Neurology, 79, 1970–1974.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Markowitz, J. S. (2016). Lost seasons: Arrests, suspensions, career chaos and mortality among National Football League (NFL) players. North Charleston: CreateSpace.Google Scholar
  14. Morabia, A. (2013). Epidemiology’s 350th anniversary: 1662–2012. Epidemiology, 24(2), 179–183.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Pudrovska, T., & Anikputa, B. (2014). Early-life socioeconomic status and mortality in later life: An integration of four life-course mechanisms. The Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 69(3), 451–460.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Satcher, D., Fryer, G. E., McCann, J., Troutman, A., Woolf, S. H., & Rust, G. (2005). What if we were equal? A comparison of black – White mortality gap in 1960 and 2000. Health Affairs, 24(2), 459–464.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Schultz, M. (2008). Rudolf Virchow. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(9), 1480–1481.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Signorello, L. B., Cohen, S. S., Williams, D. R., Munro, H. M., Hargreaves, M. K., & Blot, W. J. (2014). Socioeconomic status, race, and mortality: A prospective cohort study. American Journal of Public Health, 104(12), e98–e107.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Steenland, K., Hu, S., & James Walker, J. (2004). All-cause and cause-specific mortality by socioeconomic status among employed persons in 27 US states, 1984–1997. American Journal of Public Health, 94(6), 1037–1042.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Trostle, J. (1986). Early work in anthropology and epidemiology: From social medicine to germ theory, 1840 to 1920. In C. R. Janes, R. Stall, & S. M. Gifford (Eds.), Anthropology and epidemiology. Dordrecht: D. Riedel Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  21. Xu, J. Q., Murphy, S. L., Kochanek, K. D., Bastian, B. A., Deaths: Final data for 2013. (2016). National vital statistics reports; Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, Table 19, entitled “Number of deaths, death rates, and age-adjusted death rates for major causes of death: United States, each state, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and Northern Marianas, 2013” 64(2). Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr64/nvsr64_02.pdfGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeffrey S. Markowitz
    • 1
  1. 1.Health Data AnalyticsPrinceton JunctionUSA

Personalised recommendations