Modular Tissue Engineering: An Artificial Extracellular Matrix to Address and Stimulate Regeneration/Differentiation

  • Giovanna Della Porta
  • Ernesto Reverchon
Part of the Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine book series (STEMCELL)


Tissue engineering uses living cells as engineering materials cultivated and merged within a tri-dimensional structure in order to develop a tissue-like device; these artificial extracellular matrixes, called scaffolds, are important in influencing cells microenvironment and addressing their fate, both ex vivo as well as in vivo. Indeed, tri-dimensional scaffolds allow cell attachment, enable diffusion of vital cell nutrients or catabolites and can also deliver mechanical or biological signals. In the traditional tissue engineering “top-downapproach, cells are seeded onto biopolymer scaffold and then let them to migrate and colonize the structure; recently, the “bottom-upapproach has been described to design structural bioengineered microfeatures that can be used as building blocks to create larger tri-dimensional structures and build modular tissues. In some specific applications, a mix of the two approaches is also proposed to generate multiphase matrices. Several technologies for scaffold production are described in this chapter both using conventional organic solvent and dense gas or supercritical fluid; some solutions for artificial extracellular matrices useful for musculoskeletal tissue regeneration are also proposed.


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medicine, Surgery and DentistryUniversity of SalernoBaronissiItaly
  2. 2.Department of Industrial EngineeringUniversity of SalernoFiscianoItaly

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