Physical Simulation of Press Hardening of TRIP Steel

  • Hana JirkováEmail author
  • Kateřina Opatová
  • Martin F.-X. Wagner
  • Bohuslav Mašek
Conference paper
Part of the The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series book series (MMMS)


Deformation-induced martensitic transformation is used for improving mechanical properties of AHS steels which contain metastable retained austenite. TRIP steels are one of the categories that fall into this group. Their microstructures consist of proeutectoid ferrite, bainite, and metastable retained austenite. Cold working causes retained austenite in these steels to transform to deformation-induced martensite. A technical complication to their treatment routes is the isothermal holding stage. At this stage, bainite forms and retained austenite becomes stabilized which is the key aspect of the process. A CMnSi-type low-alloy steel with 0.2% carbon was subjected to various experimental cooling sequences which represented press hardening operations at tool temperatures ranging from 500 °C to room temperature, followed by isothermal holding in the bainitic transformation region. By varying the cooling parameters, one can obtain a broad range of mixed martensitic-bainitic structures containing retained austenite, with strengths in the vicinity of 1300 MPa, and A20 elongation levels of 10%.


Press hardening TRIP steel Retained austenite Two step etching EBSD 



This paper includes results created within the project TG02010011 Promoting Commercial Opportunities of UWB, sub-project TRIPIAL Transformation Induced Plasticity Isothermal Annealing Less. The project belongs to the GAMA programme and is subsidised from specific resources of the state budget for research and development through the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic.


  1. 1.
    Bleck W (2002) Using the TRIP effect—the down of a promising group of cold formable steels. Paper presented at the international conference on TRIP—aided high strength ferrous alloys, Belgium, 19–21 June 2002, p 13Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mašek B et al (2009) The influence of thermomechanical treatment of TRIP steel on its final microstructure. J Mater Eng Perform 18(4):385–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kučerová L, Jirková H, Mašek B (2017) The effect of alloying elements on microstructure of 0.2%C TRIP steel. Mater Sci Forum 5(1):209–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ariza EA (2016) Characterization and methodology for calculating the mechanical properties of a TRIP-steel submitted to hot stamping and quenching and partitioning (Q&P). Mater Sci Eng A 671:54–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Karbasian H, Tekkaya AE (2010) A review on hot stamping. J Mater Process Technol 210:2103–2118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mori K et al. (2017) Hot stamping of ultra-high strength steel parts. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol (in press). Scholar
  7. 7.
    Baik SCh et al (2001) Effects of alloying elements on mechanical properties and phase transformation of cold rolled TRIP steel sheets. ISIJ Int 41(3):290–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    JMatPro, Release 9.0, Sente Software Ltd. (2016)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Andrews KW (1965) Empirical formulae for the calculation of some transformation temperatures. J Iron Steel Inst 203:721–727Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hana Jirková
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kateřina Opatová
    • 1
  • Martin F.-X. Wagner
    • 1
  • Bohuslav Mašek
    • 1
  1. 1.University of West Bohemia, RTI - Regional Technological InstitutePilsenCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations