Analytical Methods for the Determination of Maillard Reaction Products in Foods. An Introduction

  • Rajeev K. SinglaEmail author
  • Ashok K. Dubey
  • Sara M. Ameen
  • Shana Montalto
  • Salvatore Parisi
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Molecular Science book series (BRIEFSMOLECULAR)


The aim of this chapter is to give a reliable overview of analytical methods for the quantitative and qualitative evaluation of Maillard reaction products in foods during processing and storage steps. At present, the importance of Maillard reactions in food processing is correlated with the appearance of sensorial alterations in foods: colours, flavours, and odours can be seriously compromised. Maillard reaction-related modifications may be a distinctive advantage in certain foods. On the other side, the attention of researchers in the area of public health is often focused on safety aspects of selected molecules or classes of substances such as furfurals, furosine, 3-deoxyglucosone, and other chemicals such as acrylamide. This chapter describes the Maillard reaction in detail. Moreover, many problems concerning the real comprehension of this group of chemical reactions depend on the peculiarity of analysed food products and analyte features. As a result, the choice of the ‘right’ analytical procedure should take into account these aspects related to peculiar analytes: a brief introduction to the problem is presented here.


Acrylamide Amino compound Furosine Hydroxymethylfurfural Maillard reaction Melanoidins Reducing sugar 





Maillard reaction product


  1. Ahn JS, Castle L, Clarke DB, Lloyd AS, Philo MR, Speck DR (2002) Verification of the findings of acrylamide in heated foods. Food Addit Contam 19(12):1116–1124. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arena S, Renzone G, D’Ambrosio C, Salzano AM, Scaloni A (2017) Dairy products and the Maillard reaction: a promising future for extensive food characterization by integrated proteomics studies. Food Chem 219:477–489. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ashie INA (2012) Enzymes in food analysis. In: Simpson BK (ed) Food biochemistry and food processing, 3rd edn, pp 39–55.
  4. Badoud R, Fay LB, Hunston F, Pratz G (1995) Periodate oxidative degradation of Amadori compounds. Formation of Nε-carboxymethyllysine and Ncarboymethylamino acids as markers of the early Maillard reaction. In: Lee TC, Kim HJ (eds) Chemical markers for processed and stored foods, ACS symposium series 631, Chicago, pp 208–220.
  5. Bates L, Ames JM, MacDougall DB, Taylor PC (1998) Laboratory reaction cell to model Maillard colour developments in a starch-glucose-lysine system. J Food Sci 63(6):991–996. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bogdanov S, Martin P (2002) Honey authenticity. Mitt Lebensm Hyg 93(3):232–254Google Scholar
  7. Bogdanov S, Martin P, Lüllmann C, Borneck R, Flamini C, Morlot M, Heretier J, Vorwohl G, Russmann H, Persano-Oddo L, Saba-tini AG, Marcazzan GL, Marioleas P, Tsigouri K, Kerkvliet J, Ortiz A, Ivanov T (1997) Harmonised methods of the European honey commission, Apidologie (extra issue), 1–59Google Scholar
  8. Bornhorst ER, Tang J, Sablani SS, Barbosa-Cánovas GV (2017) Development of model food systems for thermal pasteurization applications based on Maillard reaction products. LWT-Food Sci Technol 75:417–424. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brands CMJ, van Boekel MAJS (2001) Reaction of monosaccharides during heating of sugar-casein systems: building of a reaction network model. J Agric Food Chem 49(10):4667–4675. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bucala R, Cerami A (1992) Advanced glycosylation: chemistry, biology, and implications for diabetes and aging. Adv Pharmacol 23:1–34. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cappelli P, Vannucchi V (1990) Chimica degli alimenti. Conservazione e trasformazione, Zanichelli, BolognaGoogle Scholar
  12. Chevalier F, Chobert JM, Genot C, Haertlé T (2001) Scavenging of free radicals, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activities of the Maillard reaction products of betala toglobulin glycated with several sugars. J Agric Food Chem 49(10):5031–5038. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chhabra GS, Liu C, Su M, Venkatachalam M, Roux KH, Sathe SK (2017) Effects of the Maillard reaction on the immunoreactivity of amandin in food matrices. J Food Sci 82(10):2495–2503. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Coles R, Kirwan MJ (2011) Food and beverage packaging technology, 2nd edn. Wiley, ChichesterCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Corzo-Martínez M, Corzo N, Villamiel M, del Castillo MD (2012) Browning reactions. In: Simpson BK (ed) Food biochemistry and food processing, 2nd edn, pp 56–83.
  16. Corzo-Martínez M, Moreno FJ, Villamiel M, Harte FM (2010) Characterization and improvement of rheological properties of sodium caseinate glycated with galactose, lactose and dextran. Food Hydrocoll 24(1):88–97. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. da Silva PM, Gauche C, Gonzaga LV, Costa ACO, Fett R (2016) Honey: chemical composition, stability and authenticity. Food Chem 196:309–323. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Delgado AM, Parisi S, Almeida MDV (2017) Greens and other vegetable foods. In: Delgado AM, Almeida MDV, Parisi S (eds) Chemistry of the Mediterranean diet, pp 59–137. Springer International PublishingGoogle Scholar
  19. Feather MS, Mossine V, Hirsch J (1995) The use of aminoguanidine to trap and measure decarbonyl intermediates produced during the Maillard reaction. In: Lee TC, Kim HJ (eds) Chemical markers for processed and stored foods, ACS symposium series 631, Chicago, pp 24–31.
  20. Fiorino M, Parisi S (2016) Undesired chemical alterations and process-related causes. The role of thermal control and the management of thermal machines. In: Micali M, Fiorino M, Parisi S (eds) The chemistry of thermal food processing procedures, pp 41–54. Springer International Publishing, ChamGoogle Scholar
  21. Floros JD (2008) Food science-feeding the world. Food Technol 62(5):11Google Scholar
  22. Fu MX, Wells-Knecht KJ, Blackledge JA, Lyons TJ, Thorpe SR, Baynes JW (1994) Glycation, glycoxidation, and cross-linking of collagen by glucose: kinetics, mechanisms, and inhibition of late stages of the Maillard reaction. Diabetes 43(5):676–683. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gartaula G, Adhikari BM (2014) Challenges and prospects of food science and technology education: Nepal’s perspective. Food Sci Nutr 2(6):623–627. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ghiron AF, Quack B, Mahinney TP, Feather MS (1988) Studies on the role of 3-deoxy-d-erythro-glucosulose (3-glucosone)in nonenzymatic browning. Evidence for involvement in a Strecker degradation. J Agric Food Chem 36(4):677–680. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hall RL (1989) Pioneers in food science and technology: giants in the earth. Food Technol 43(9):186–195Google Scholar
  26. Hayase F, Usui T, Nishiyama K, Sasaki S, Shirahashi Y, Tsuchiya N, Numata N, Watanabe H (2005) Chemistry and biological effects of melanoidins and glyceraldehyde-derived pyridinium as advanced glycation end products. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1043(1):104–1010. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Henle T, Schwarzenbolz U, Walter AW, Klosterrneyer H (1998) Protein-bound Maillard compounds in foods: analytical and technological aspects. In: O’ Brien J, Nursten HE, Crabbe MJC, Ames JM (eds) The Maillard reaction in foods and medicine, Special Publication No 223. The Royas Society of Chemistry, LondonGoogle Scholar
  28. Hidalgo FJ, Zamora R (2000) The role of lipids in non-enzymic browning. Grasas Aceites 51(1–2):35–49. Google Scholar
  29. Hodge JE (1953) Chemistry of browning reactions in model systems. J Agric Food Chem 1(15):928–943. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Huber B, Ledl F (1990) Formation of 1-amino-1,4- dideoxy-2,3-hexodiulose and 2-aminoacetylfurans in the Maillard reaction. Carbohydr Res 204:215–220. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Huyghues-Despointes A, Yaylayan VA (1996) Retroaldol and redox reactions of Amadori compounds: mechanistic studies with various labeled D-[13C] glucose. J Agric Food Chem 44(3):672–681. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jiménez-Castaño L, Villamiel M, Martín-Álvarez PJ, Olano A, López-Fandiño R (2005) Effect of the dry-heating conditions on the glycosylation of β-lactoglobulin with dextran through the Maillard reaction. Food Hydrocoll 19(5):831–837. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kearney J (2010) Food consumption trends and drivers. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 365(1554):2793–2807.
  34. Kim JS, Lee YS (2008) Effect of reaction pH on enolization and racemization reactions of glucose and fructose on heating with amino acid enantiomers and formation of melanoidins as result of the Maillard reaction. Food Chem 108(2):582–592. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lingnert H (1990) Development of the Maillard reaction during food processing. In: Finot PA, Aeschbacher HU, Hurrell RF, Liardon R (eds) The Maillard reaction in food processing, human nutrition and physiology. Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel, pp 171–185.
  36. Maillard LC (1912) Action des acidesamines sur les sucres: formation des melanoidines par voie methodique. Compt Rend Acad Sci (Paris) 154:66–68Google Scholar
  37. Malec LS, Pereyra Gonzales AS, Naranjo GB, Vigo MS (2002) Influence of water activity and storage temperature on lysine availability of a milk like system. Food Res Int 35(9):849–853. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mania I, Barone C, Pellerito A, Laganà P, Parisi S (2017) Trasparenza e Valorizzazione delle Produzioni Alimentari.’etichettatura e la Tracciabilità di Filiera come Strumenti di Tutela delle Produzioni Alimentari. Ind Aliment 56(581):18–22Google Scholar
  39. Marcus N (2016) The Maillard reaction: radicals and flavor. Group presentation (date: 22th March 2016), Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois, Available Accessed 20 Nov 2017
  40. Martins SIFS, Jongen WMF, van Boekel MAJS (2001) A review of Maillard reaction in food and implications to kinetic modelling. Trends Food Sci Technol 11(9–10):364–373. Google Scholar
  41. Mathlouthi M (1994) Food packaging and preservation. Springer Science & Business Media, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. McWeeny DJ, Knowels ME, Hearne JF (1974) The chemistry of non-enzymic browning and its control by sulphites. J Sci Food Agric 25(6):735–746. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Miralles B, Martínez-Rodríguez A, Santiago A, van de Lagemaat J, Heras A (2007) The occurrence of a Maillard-type proteinpolysaccharide reaction between β-lactobglobulin and chitosan. Food Chem 100(3):1071–1075. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Morales FJ (2008) Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and related com-pounds. In: Stadler RH and Lineback DR (eds) Process-induced food toxicants: occurrence, formation, mitigation, and health risks. Wiley, Hoboken.
  45. Mottram DS, Wedzicha BL, Dodson AT (2002) Acrylamide is formed in the Maillard reaction. Nature 419(6906):448–449. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Nawar WW (1985) Lipids. In: Fennema OR (ed) Food chemistry, pp 139–244. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  47. Nawar WW (1996) Lipids. In: Fennema OR (ed) Food chemistry, 3rd edn, pp 225–319. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  48. Nursten HE (2005) The Maillard reaction: chemistry, biochemistry and implications. The Royal Society of Chemistry, LondonGoogle Scholar
  49. Parisi S (2017) Antimicrobials in foods today and the role of chitosan—current hopes and new perspectives. Glob Drugs Therap 2(2):1–2. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pastoriza S, Rufián-Henares JÁ, García-Villanova B, Guerra-Hernández E (2016) Evolution of the Maillard reaction in glutamine or arginine-dextrinomaltose model systems. Foods 5(4):86. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pedreschi F, Mariotti MS, Granby K (2014) Current issues in dietary acrylamide: formation, mitigation and risk assessment. J Sci Food Agric 94(1):9–20. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rufián-Henares JA, Delgado-Andrade C, Morales FJ (2009) Assessing the Maillard reaction development during the toasting process of common flours employed by the cereal products industry. Food Chem 114(1):93–99. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sharma RK, Parisi S (2017) Aflatoxins in Indian food products. In: Sharma RK, Parisi S (eds) Toxins and contaminants in Indian food products. Springer International Publishing AG, Cham.
  54. Singh R, Barden A, Mori T, Beilin L (2001) Advanced glycation end-products: a review. Diabetologia 44(2):129–146. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Steinka I, Barone C, Parisi S, Micali M (2017) Technology and chemical features of frozen vegetables. In: Steinka I, Barone C, Parisi S, Micali M (eds) The chemistry of frozen vegetables, pp 23–29. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
  56. Sun DW (ed) (2016) Handbook of frozen food processing and packaging. CRC Press, Boca Raton.
  57. Tareke A, Rydberg P, Karlsson P, Eriksson S, Törnqvist M (2002) Analysis of acrylamide, a carcinogen formed in heated foodstuffs. J Agric Food Chem 50(17):4998–5006. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Tomasik P, Pałasiński M, Wiejak S (1989) The thermal decomposition of carbohydrates. Part I: the decomposition of mono-, di- and oligosaccharides. Adv Carbohydr Chem Biochem 47:203–278. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Tornuk F, Karaman S, Ozturk I, Toker OS, Tastemur B, Sagdic O, Dogan M, Kayacier A (2013) Quality characterization of artisanal and retail Turkish blossom honeys: determination of physico-chemical, microbiological, bioactive properties and aroma profile. Ind Crop Prod 46:124–131.
  60. Tressl R, Nittka C, Kersten E (1995) Formation of Isoleucine-specific Maillard Products from [1-13C]-d-glucose and [1-13C]-d-fructose. J Agric Food Chem 43(5):1163–1169. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ukeda H, Ishii T (1997) Analytical methods of Maillard reaction products in foods. Foods Food Ingredients J Jpn 171:84–91Google Scholar
  62. Van Boekel MAJS, Brands C (1998) Heating of sugarcasein solutions: isomerization and Maillard reactions. In: O’Brien J, Nursten HE, Crabbe MJC, Ames JM (eds) The Maillard reaction in foods and medicine. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, pp 154–158Google Scholar
  63. Vhangani LN, Van Wyk J (2016) Antioxidant activity of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) in a lipid-rich model system. Food Chem 208:301–308. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Velásquez Cifuentes NF (2013) Evaluación de diferentes tiempos de calentamiento de la miel de abeja (Apis mellifera) para retardar su cristalización y determinar los niveles de HMF (Hidroximetil Furfural), en la asociación de apicultores del sur occidente de Guatemala. Dissertation, Universidad de San Carlos de GuatemalaGoogle Scholar
  65. Wedzicha BL, Mcweeny DJ (1974) Non-enzymic browning reactions of ascorbic acid and their inhibition. Identification of 3-deoxy-4-sulphopentosulose in dehydrated, sulfited cabbage after storage. J Sci Food Agric 25(5):589–593. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Wilkinson C, Dijksterhuis GB, Minekus M (2000) From food structure to texture. Trends Food Sci Technol 11(12):442–450. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Yada RY, Bryksa B, Nip WK (2012) An introduction to food biochemistry. In: Simpson BK (ed) Food biochemistry and food processing, 2nd edn, pp 1–25.
  68. Yaylayan VA, Stadler RH (2005) Acrylamide formation in food: a mechanistic perspective. J AOAC Int 88(1):262–267Google Scholar
  69. Zaccheo A, Palmaccio E, Venable M, Locarnini-Sciaroni I, Parisi S (2017) The complex relationships between humans, food, water, and hygiene. In: Zaccheo A, Palmaccio E, Venable M, Locarnini-Sciaroni I, Parisi S (eds) Food hygiene and applied food microbiology in an anthropological cross cultural perspective. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
  70. Zamora R, Alaiz M, Hidalgo FJ (2000) Contribution of pyrrole formation and polymerization to the nonenzymatic browning produced by aminocarbonyl reactions. J Agric Food Chem 48(8):3152–3158. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Zamora R, Hidalgo FJ (1994) Modification of lysine amino groups by the lipid peroxidation product 4,5(E)-epoxy-2(E)-heptenal. Lipids 29(4):243–249. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Zamora R, Hidalgo FJ (1995) Linoleic acid oxidation in the presence of amino compounds produces pyrroles by carbonyl amine reactions. Biochim Biophys Acta 1258(3):319–327. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Zhang Y, Zhang Y (2007) Formation and reduction of acrylamide in Maillard reaction: a review based on the current state of knowledge. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 47(5):521–542. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Zhang Q, Ames JM, Smith RD, Baynes JW, Metz TO (2008) A perspective on the Maillard reaction and the analysis of protein glycation by mass spectrometry: probing the pathogenesis of chronic disease. J Proteom Res 8(2):754–769. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rajeev K. Singla
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ashok K. Dubey
    • 1
  • Sara M. Ameen
    • 2
  • Shana Montalto
    • 3
  • Salvatore Parisi
    • 4
  1. 1.Division of Biological Sciences and EngineeringNetaji Subhas Institute of TechnologyDwarkaIndia
  2. 2.Medical Research Laboratories, Faculty of ScienceHelwan UniversityCairoEgypt
  3. 3.Food Safety ConsultantFloridiaItaly
  4. 4.Industrial ConsultantPalermoItaly

Personalised recommendations