Advertisement

Soils of the Argentine Antarctica

  • Rubén E. GodagnoneEmail author
  • Juan C. de la Fuente
Chapter
  • 260 Downloads
Part of the World Soils Book Series book series (WSBS)

Abstract

Antarctic soils have been studied since the mid-twentieth century. The first studies were focused on the intense influence of seabirds in soil genesis, specially through the microbiological decomposition of guano, while other important pedogenetic processes were less studied. Subsequent studies showed that climate, vegetation and micro-organisms were also key factors in the formation of these soils. Significant differences were found in soil genesis in the different sites studied, which allowed to recognize the current pedogenetic processes and those developed under warmer climates. In the present chapter, we present a review of the edaphic studies carried out in the Argentine Antarctic. They were focused in the ice-free areas of the northern sector of the Antarctic Peninsula and the surrounding islands: Marambio Island (Trinidad Peninsula), Esperanza Bay (Tabarín Peninsula), Potter Peninsula (25 de Mayo Island), Harmony Point (Nelson Island), Cape Spring, Leopard and Penguin Islands (Coast of Danco). A complex landscape, involving soils with different properties, evolved mainly through the participation of the five soil-forming factors. The presence of permafrost, key to soil classification, was observed mainly in the Eastern sector of the northern Antarctic Peninsula. In the Western sector, the melting of the soils in the summer allowed the development of the horizons used for the description. The diagnostic features used were the presence of ochric, mollic, histic, cryoturbation, permafrost and glacic layers and the presence of gelic materials. Soils correspond to the orders Gelisols, Mollisols, Inceptisols, Histosols, Spodosols and Entisols.

Keywords

Antarctic Soils Soil Taxonomy Climate  

References

  1. Beyer L, Bölter M (1999) Formation, ecology, and geography of Cryosol of an ice-free oasis in Coastal East Antarctic near Casey Station (Wilkes Land). Aust J Soil Res 37:209–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beyer L, Knicker H, Blume H-P, Bölter M, Vogt B, Schneider D (1997) Soil organic matter of suggested spodic horizons in relic ornithogenic soils of coastal continental Antarctica (Casey Station, Wilkes Land) in comparison with that of spodic soil horizons in Germany. Soil Sci 162(1997):518–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beyer L, Pingpank C, Wriedt G, Bölter M (2000) Soil formation in coastal continental Antarctica (Wilkes Land). Geoderma 95:283–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blume H-P, Beyer L, Bolter M, Erlenheuser H, Kalk E, Kneesch S, Pfisterer U, Schneider D (1997) Pedogenic zonation in soils of Southern circumpolar region. Adv GeoEcol 30:60–90Google Scholar
  5. Bockheim JG (ed) (2015a). The soils of Antarctica. SpringerGoogle Scholar
  6. Bockheim JG (2015b) Soil-forming factors in Antarctica. In: Bockheim JG (ed) The soils of Antarctica. World Soils Book Series, SpringerGoogle Scholar
  7. Codignoto JO, LLorente RA, Mendía JE, Olivero E, Spikermann JP (1978) Geologia del Cabo Spring y de las Islas Leopardo Pingüino y Cesar. Dirección Nacional del Antártico, Instituto Antártico Argentino, Contribución No. 216:1–44Google Scholar
  8. Godagnone RE (1997) Península Potter; Isla 25 de Mayo. Antártida Argentina. Mapa Detallado de Suelos, escala 1:10.000. Dirección Nacional del Antártico, Instituto Antártico Argentino, Contribución No. 448:1–45Google Scholar
  9. Godagnone RE (2001) Suelos Antárticos. Clasificación Taxonómica y Cartografía. Dirección Nacional del Antártico, Instituto Antártico Argentino, Publicación No. 30:1–92Google Scholar
  10. Godagnone RE, de la Fuente JC (2010) Los suelos de Punta Armonía, Islas Shetland. Antártida. Contribución Científica. GAEA Sociedad Argentina de Estudios Geográficos 22:266–277Google Scholar
  11. Godagnone RE, de la Fuente JC (2011) Los suelos de Bahía Esperanza, Península de Tabarín, Antártida Argentina. Contribución Científica. GAEA Sociedad Argentina de Estudios Geográficos 23:131–139Google Scholar
  12. Goodwin ID (1993) Holocene degaciation, sea-level change, and the emergence of the Windmill Islands, Budd Coast, Antarctica. Quat Res 40(70):80Google Scholar
  13. Haus N, Schaefer CE, Bockheim J, Pereira TTC (2015) Soils of Graham and Palmer Lands, Antarctic Peninsula. In: The soils of Antarctica, Springer, pp 205–225Google Scholar
  14. IGN (2018) Datos Abiertos del Instituto Geográfico Nacional de la República. http://www.ign.gob.ar/images/MapasWeb/TIERRA-DEL-FUEGO/PCIA-TDF-POLITICO-WEB.jpg. 22 March 2018
  15. MacNamara EE (1969) Soils and geomorphic surfaces in Antarctica. Bul Peryglac 20:299–320Google Scholar
  16. Molfino RH (1956) Ensayo edafológico sobre la Antártida Argentina. Buenos Aires, La Plata, Facultad de Agronomía. Rev Fac Agr (3ª época), t. 32 (entrega 1ª): 1–48Google Scholar
  17. NASA-USGS (2013) NASA-USGS Landsat 8 satellite pinpoints coldest spots on Earth. National Aeronautics and Space Administration and U.S. Geological Survey. 9 December 2013. https://www.nasa.gov/content/goddard/nasa-usgs-landsat-8-satellite-pinpoints-coldest-spots-on-earth. 7 July 2017
  18. Panzarini RN (1958) La Naturaleza del Antártico. Editorial Victor Leru SRL, Buenos AiresGoogle Scholar
  19. Paul E, Stüwe K, Teasdale J, Worley B (1995) Structural and metamorphic geology of the Windamill Islands, East Antarctica: field evidence for repeate tecnothermal activity. Aust J Earth Sci 42:453–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Rinaldi CA (1978) Geología de la Isla Vicecomodoro Marambio, Contribución No. 217. Instituto Antártico ArgentinoGoogle Scholar
  21. SMN (2001) Estadística Climatolólgica 1991–2000. Servicio Meteorológico Nacional (SMN). Fuerza Aérea Argentina, Comando de Regiones AéreasGoogle Scholar
  22. Soil Survey Staff (1999) Soil taxonomy. A basic system of soil classification for making and interpreting soil surveys. United State Departament of Agriculture, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  23. Soil Survey Staff (2010) Keys to soil taxonomy, 10th edn. WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  24. Tatur A (1989) Ornithogenic soils of maritime Antarctica. Pol Polar Res 10:481–532Google Scholar
  25. Tatur A, Keck A (1990) Phosphates in ornithogenic soils of the maritime Antarctic. Proc NIPR Symp Polar Biol 3:133–150Google Scholar
  26. Tedrow JCF, Ugolini FC (1966) Antarctic Soils. Am Geophys Union Antarct Res Ser 8:161–177Google Scholar
  27. Tedrow JCF, Ugolini FC (2013) Antartic Soils. Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  28. Van Wambeke A, Scoppa C (1980) Las Taxas Climáticas de los Suelos Argentinos, Publicación No. 168. INTAGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.INTA, Instituto de SuelosBuenos AiresArgentina

Personalised recommendations