This chapter explores the role of agricultural credit in China’s rural reconstruction movement. The Kuomintang (KMT) recognized that China was facing diverse social forces that drove at least three political and economic objectives, or imperatives. The first was to increase production. The second was China’s own salvation, particularly in light of Japanese aggression. The third objective was better local government and self-discipline. The reconstruction movement also dealt with institution building. This chapter explores the relationship between agricultural credit and rural reconstruction throughout the late 1920s and 1930s.