State–Civil Society Partnerships in International Aid and Public Diplomacy: The Case of Turkey and Somalia

Part of the Palgrave Studies in Communication for Social Change book series (PSCSC)


This chapter presents a conceptual two-level approach, focusing on interactions at state and civil society levels. Using the Turkish humanitarian aid to Somalia as a case study to develop further their conceptual framework, the authors examine how state and non-state actors engage with local players in Somalia and how they communicate their presence in the country. Their study demonstrates that Turkey has virtually no cooperation between these two levels in terms of communication about development—Turkish state-led reconstruction attempts in Somalia and the faith-based civil society groups participating in development efforts do not communicate with each other. However, the country enjoys a coherent communication of development rhetoric to promote its foreign aid which enables it to establish links between the two separate levels.


Public Diplomacy State-civil Society Partnerships Turkish Civil Society Turkish Foreign Policy Faith-based NGOs 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Abramowitz, M. I. (1993). Dateline Ankara: Turkey After Ozal. Foreign Policy, 91, 164–181. Scholar
  2. Achilles, K., Sazak, O., Wheeler, T., & Woods, A. E. (2015). Turkish Aid Agencies in Somalia. Istanbul: Saferworld and Istanbul Policy Center. Google Scholar
  3. AK Parti Çorum. (2016). AK Parti Çorum İl Teşkilatından Deniz Feneri’ne Destek. Retrieved October 21, 2016, from
  4. Arman, A. (2015). Erdoğan: The Hero of Somalia: Al Jazeera English. Retrieved March 10, 2016, from
  5. Atlı, A. (2011). Businessman and Diplomats. Insight Turkey, 13(1), 109–128.Google Scholar
  6. Başbakanlık. (2010). Kamu Diplomasisi Koordinatörlüğü. Resmi Gazete. Retrieved from
  7. Business Insider. (2016). Turkey’s President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan in War Torn Somalia. Retrieved October 21, 2016, from
  8. Çevik, S. B. (2015). The Benefactor: NGOs and Humanitarian Aid. In S. B. Çevik & P. Seib (Eds.), Turkey’s Public Diplomacy (pp. 121–152). New York City: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  9. Cull, N. J. (2009). Public Diplomacy: Lessons from the Past. CPD Perspectives on Public Diplomacy. Retrieved from
  10. Daily Sabah. (2016). First Turkish Military Base in Africa to Open in Somalia. Retrieved March 10, 2016, from
  11. Davutoğlu, A. (2012). Principles of Turkish Foreign Policy and Regional Political Structuring. Ankara: TEPAV. Retrieved January 5, 2015, from
  12. Davutoğlu, A. (2013a). Stratejik derinlik: Türkiye’nin uluslararası konumu. İstanbul: Küre Yayınları.Google Scholar
  13. Davutoğlu, A. (2013b). Turkey’s Humanitarian Diplomacy: Objectives, Challenges and Prospects. Nationalities Papers: The Journal of Nationalism and Ethnicity, 41(6), 865–870.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. (2013, October 29). Somali Cumhurbaşkanı Marmaray açılışında. Retrieved March 10, 2016, from
  15. Erdoğan, R. T. (2011). The Tears of Somalia. Retrieved March 10, 2016, from
  16. Ethiopia Embassy. (2010). AIGA Forum Horn of Africa. Retrieved October 21, 2016, from
  17. Fukuda-Parr, S. (2007). Rethinking the Policy Objectives of Development Aid: From Economic Growth to Conflict Prevention. Research Paper 2007/032. Helsinki: UNU-WIDER.Google Scholar
  18. Gerring, J. (2009). Case Selection for Case-Study Analysis: Qualitative and Quantitative Techniques. In J. M. Box-Steffensmeier, H. E. Brady, & D. Collier (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Political Methodology (1st ed., Vol. 1, pp. 645–685). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from
  19. Glassman, J. K. (2008, December). Public Diplomacy 2.0: A New Approach to Global Engagement. Speech presented at the New America Foundation, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  20. Gregory, B. (2008). Public Diplomacy: Sunrise of an Academic Field. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 616(1), 274–290. Scholar
  21. Güleryüz, N. A. (2009). The Turkish Jews: 700 Years of Togetherness. İstanbul: 500. Yıl Vakfı.Google Scholar
  22. Harper, M. (2014). The Unlikely Love Affair between Two Countries. Retrieved March 10, 2016, from
  23. Hasimi, C. (2014). Turkey’s Humanitarian Diplomacy and Development Cooperation. Insight Turkey, 16(1), 127–145.Google Scholar
  24. Hürriyet. (2011). Deniz Feneri Tutuklularını 150 AK Partili Vekil 2 Bakan Ziyaret Etti. Retrieved October 21, 2016, from
  25. Hurriyet Daily News. (2016). Turkey Plans to Enhance Investments in Somalia. Retrieved March 10, 2016, from
  26. IHH. (2014). TİKA ve Kudüs Konsolosluğumuzdan İHH’ya Ziyaret. Retrieved January 5, 2015, from
  27. IHH. (2015). Türkiye Orta Afrika’ya Umut Taşıdı. Retrieved January 5, 2015, from
  28. Ihlamur-Öner, S. G. (2013). Turkey’s Refugee Regime Stretched to the Limit? The Case of Iraqi and Syrian Refugee Flows. Perceptions, 18(3), 191–228.Google Scholar
  29. Kardaş, Ş. (2013). Turkey: A Regional Power Facing a Changing International System. Turkish Studies, 14(4), 637–660. Scholar
  30. KDK. (2014). Uluslararası yardımlarda “en cömert ülke” unvanını taşıyan Türkiye’nin yardım seferberliği sürüyor. Retrieved March 9, 2016, from
  31. KDK. (2015a). 13 yılda 65 yeni temsilcilik: Türkiye’nin yurtdışındaki temsilcilik sayısı 228’e çıktı. Retrieved March 9, 2016, from
  32. KDK. (2015b). Türkiye’nin 2014 yılı yardımları %47,3’lük artışla 6,4 milyar dolara çıktı. Retrieved March 9, 2016, from
  33. MFA. (2015a). Relations Between Turkey and Somalia. Retrieved March 10, 2016, from
  34. MFA. (2015b). Foreign Minister Davutoğlu: We Will Take the Necessary Steps to Strengthen the Brotherhood Between Somalia and Somaliland. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved January 5, 2015, from
  35. MFA. (2016). Synopsis of the Turkish Foreign Policy. Retrieved October 21, 2016, from
  36. Mohamud, H. S. (2016, February). Speech by Hassan Sheikh Mohamud, President of the Federal Republic of Somalia, at the Opening Session/High Level Partnership Forum Istanbul. Presented at the High Level Partnership Forum, Istanbul, Turkey. Retrieved from
  37. OECD. (n.d.). Official Development Assistance—Definition and Coverage—OECD. Retrieved March 9, 2016, from
  38. Ozkan, Mehmet. (2014). Turkey’s Involvement in Somalia: Assessment of State Building in Progress. Ankara: SETA.Google Scholar
  39. Pamment, J. (2015). Media Influence, Ontological Transformation, and Social Change: Conceptual Overlaps Between Development Communication and Public Diplomacy: Media Influence, Ontological Transformation, and Social Change. Communication Theory, 25(2), 188–207. Scholar
  40. Pamment, J. (2016). Intersections Between Public Diplomacy & International Development: Case Studies in Converging Fields. Los Angeles, CA: Figueroa Press.Google Scholar
  41. Payne, G. (2009). Trends in Global Public Relations and Grassroots Diplomacy. American Behavioral Scientist, 53(4), 487–492. Scholar
  42. Richman, M. (2012). Turkey Takes on Redevelopment Efforts in Somalia. Retrieved March 10, 2016, from
  43. Sabah. (2011). Somali’ye Bağış Yağmuru. Retrieved October 21, 2016 from
  44. Saferworld and IPC. (2015). Turkiye ve Somali: Yardimlarin Barisa Hizmet Etmesi (No. Politika Notu). Istanbul: IPC.Google Scholar
  45. Sancar, G. A. (2015). Turkey’s Public Diplomacy: Its Actors, Stakeholders, and Tools. In S. B. Çevik & P. Seib (Eds.), Turkey’s Public Diplomacy (pp. 13–42). Basingstoke/New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  46. Seawright, J., & Gerring, J. (2008). Case Selection Techniques in Case Study Research: A Menu of Qualitative and Quantitative Options. Political Research Quarterly, 61(2), 294–308. Scholar
  47. Selçuk, O. (2016). Strong Presidents and Weak Institutions: Populism in Turkey, Venezuela and Ecuador. Southeast European and Black Sea Studies. Scholar
  48. Sevin, E. (2014). Making New Friends: Relational Public Diplomacy as a Foreign Policy Instrument. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, American University.Google Scholar
  49. Stewart, J. (2012, October 29). Stop Branding Aid. Retrieved from
  50. Stirk, C. (2014). Humanitarian Assistance from Non-state Donors: What Is It Worth? (Briefing Report). Global Humanitarian Assistance. Retrieved from
  51. TOKI. (2015). TOKİ > International Experience. Retrieved March 10, 2016, from
  52. TOKI. (2016). International Experience. Retrieved October 21, 2016, from
  53. TRT. (2011). Erdoğan’dan Somali için Yardım Çağrısı haberi. Retrieved March 10, 2016, from
  54. United Nations. (2016). Turkey’s Erdoğan Challenges World Leaders at UN Assembly to End Bloodshed in Syria. Retrieved October 21, 2016, from
  55. Wasuge, M. (2016). Turkey’s Assistance Model in Somalia: Achieving Much with Little. Mogadishu: The Heritage Institute for Policy Studies.Google Scholar
  56. Zaharna, R. S. (2007). The Soft Power Differential: Network Communication and Mass Communication in Public Diplomacy. The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, 2(3), 213–228. Scholar
  57. Zaharna, R. S. (2014). Network Purpose, Network Design: Dimensions of Network and Collaborative Public Diplomacy. In R. S. Zaharna, A. Arsenault, & A. Fisher (Eds.), Relational, Networked, and Collaborative Approaches to Public Diplomacy: The Connective Mindshift (pp. 173–191). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of CaliforniaIrvineUSA
  2. 2.Reinhardt UniversityWaleskaUSA
  3. 3.Kadir Has UniversityIstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations