Nation Branding, Neoliberal Development, and the Remaking of the Nation-State: Lessons from Post-war Kosovo
- 370 Downloads
Drawing on the case of post-war Kosovo, this chapter explores how nation branding intersects with a neoliberal development agenda. The author argues that Kosovo’s “Young Europeans” campaign was an effort to legitimize the adoption of economic policies and ideologies that served the interests of global capital rather than of the local population. Furthermore, the campaign articulated a post-ethnic, cosmopolitan, entrepreneurial national subject, while disregarding real social divisions. By juxtaposing the campaign’s messages with material indicators of life in Kosovo, the analysis raises questions about the winners and losers of neoliberal development. The chapter ends with lessons for a broader understanding of the changing nature of the nation-state under a neoliberal regime and suggests directions for future research at the intersection of public diplomacy and development communication.
I owe special thanks to Bujar Aruqaj for his invaluable research assistance in the early stages of this project.
- Ahtisaari, M. (2007a). Report of the Special Envoy of the Secretary-General on Kosovo’s Future Status. Retrieved October 23, 2016, from www.esiweb.org/pdf/kosovo_Ahtisaari%20Proposal%20.pdf.
- Ahtisaari, M. (2007b). Comprehensive Proposal for the Kosovo Status Settlement. Retrieved October 23, 2016, from www.esiweb.org/pdf/kosovo_Ahtisaari%20Proposal%20.pdf.
- Anholt, S. (2010). Places: Identity, Image and Reputation. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Aronczyk, M. (2008). “Living the Brand”: Nationality, Globality, and the Identity Strategies of Nation Branding Consultants. International Journal of Communication, 2, 41–65. Retrieved October 20, 2016, from http://ijoc.org/index.php/ijoc/article/view/218.
- Brentin, D., & Tregoures, L. (2016). Entering Through the Sport’s Door? Kosovo’s Sport Diplomatic Endeavours Towards International Recognition, Diplomacy & Statecraft, 27(2), 360–378.Google Scholar
- Brunwasser, M. (2012, December 11). That Crush at Kosovo’s Business Door? The Return of U.S. Heroes. The New York Times. Retrieved October 10, 2016, from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/12/world/europe/americans-who-helped-free-kosovo-return-as-entrepreneurs.html?_r=0.
- Brunwasser, M. (2015). Steamrolled: A Special Investigation into the Diplomacy of Doing Business Abroad. Foreign Policy. Retrieved October 1, 2016, from http://foreignpolicy.com/2015/01/30/steamrolled-investigation-bechtel-highway-business-kosovo.
- Bytyci, F. (2011). Merkel Urges Serbia, Kosovo to Normalize Relations. Reuters. Retrieved October 20, 2016, from http://www.reuters.com/article/us-germany-merkel-kosovo-idUSTRE7BI1HM20111219.
- CIA. (n.d.). Kosovo. The World Fact Book. Retrieved October 22, 2016, from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/kv.html.
- Connor, P. (2016). Number of Refugees to Europe Surges to Record 1.3 Million in 2015. Pew Research Center. Retrieved October 20, 2016, from http://www.pewglobal.org/2016/08/02/number-of-refugees-to-europe-surges-to-record-1-3-million-in-2015.
- Constitution of the Republic of Kosovo. (n.d.). Retrieved October 20, 2016, from http://www.assembly-kosova.org/common/docs/Constitution1%20of%20the%20Republic%20of%20Kosovo.pdf.
- Dinnie, K. (2008). Nation Branding: Concepts, Issues, Practice. New York: Butterworth-Heinemann.Google Scholar
- Dutta, M. (2011). Communicating Social Change: Structure, Culture, Agency. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Gashi, K. (2012). Kosovo. In Nations in Transit 2012: Democratization from Central Europe to Eurasia (pp. 279–295). Washington, DC and New York: Freedom House. Retrieved October 23, 2016. https://www.freedomhouse.org/sites/default/files/NIT2012Kosovo_final.pdf.
- Harvey, D. (2005). A Brief History of Neoliberalism. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Hehir, A. (Ed.). (2010a). Kosovo, Intervention and Statebuilding: The International Community and the Transition to Independence. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Hehir, A. (2010b). Microcosm, guinea pig or sui generis? Assessing International Engagement with Kosovo. In A. Hehir (Ed.), Kosovo, Intervention and Statebuilding: The International Community and the Transition to Independence (pp. 185–196). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Hehir, A. (2016, August 31). How the West Built a Failed State in Kosovo. The National Interest. Retrieved October 20, 2016, from http://nationalinterest.org/feature/how-the-west-built-failed-state-kosovo-17539.
- IKS. (2008). IMAGE MATTERS! Deconstructing Kosovo’s Image Problem. Pristina, Kosovo: Kosovar Stability Initiative. Retrieved September 10, 2016, from http://kfos.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/Image-Matters-ENG.pdf.
- IMF. (2012). Republic of Kosovo: Second Review under the Stand-by Arrangement, Request for Rephrasing of Purchases and Modification of Performance Criterion. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund. Retrieved October 20, 2016, from https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/scr/2012/cr12345.pdf.
- Kaneva, N. (2011a). Nation Branding: Toward an Agenda for Critical Research. International Journal of Communication, 5, 117–141. Retrieved October 20, 2016, from http://ijoc.org/index.php/ijoc/article/view/704.
- Kaneva, N. (2011b). Branding Post-communist Nations: Marketizing National Identities in the “New” Europe. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Kaneva, N. (2015). Nation Branding and Commercial Nationalism: A Critical Perspective. In Z. Volcic & M. Andrejevic (Eds.), Commercial Nationalism: Selling the Nation and Nationalizing the Sell (pp. 175–189). New York and London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Karrota. (n.d.). Awards. Karrota.net. Retrieved March 10, 2016, from http://www.karrota.net/awards.
- KIESA. (n.d.). Invest in Kosovo. Retrieved October 10, 2016, from http://www.invest-ks.org/en/Why-Kosovo.
- Lewis, P. (2014). US Ambassador to Kosovo Hired by Construction Firm He Lobbied for. The Guardian. Retreived October 20, 2016, from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/apr/14/us-ambassador-kosovo-construction-contract-firm-highway.
- Marku, H. (2014). Newborn: Private, Public, or Somewhere in Between? Kosovo 2.0. Retrieved October 24, 2016, from http://archive.kosovotwopointzero.com/en/article/1015/newborn-private-public-or-somewhere-in-between.
- Pamment, J. (2016a). “Introduction.” In J. Pamment (Ed.), Intersections Between Public Diplomacy & International Development: Case Studies in Converging Fields (pp. 8–18). Los Angeles: Figueroa Press. Retrieved January 15, 2017, from http://uscpublicdiplomacy.org/sites/uscpublicdiplomacy.org/files/useruploads/u35361/Intersections%20Between%20PD%20International%20Development_final.pdf.
- Pavkovic, A., & Kelen, C. (2016). Anthems and the Making of Nation States: Identity and Nationalism in the Balkans. New York: I.B. Tauris.Google Scholar
- Servaes, J. (1999). Communication for Development: One World, Multiple Cultures. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.Google Scholar
- Sopi, V. (2008). Newborn: In More Ways Than One. Under Consideration. Retrieved October 20, 2016, from http://www.underconsideration.com/speakup/archives/004483.html.
- Stambolieva, M. (2012, October 12–13). Kosovo—From State of Welfare Emergency to Welfare State? Paper presented at the Conference “Economic Development and Political Transition in Kosovo,” American University in Kosovo, Pristina, Kosovo. Retrieved October 23, 2016, from https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2687677.
- Szondi, G. (2008). Public Diplomacy and Nation Branding: Conceptual Similarities and Differences. The Hague: Netherlands Institute for International Relations “Glingendael.” Retrieved October 16, 2016, from https://www.clingendael.nl/sites/default/files/20081022_pap_in_dip_nation_branding.pdf.
- The World Bank Group in Kosovo. (2015). Country Snapshot, April 2015. Retrieved March 26, 2018, from http://www.worldbank.org/content/dam/Worldbank/document/eca/Kosovo-Snapshot.pdf.
- Turner, G. (2015). Setting the Stage for Commercial Nationalism: The Nation, the Market, and the Media. In Z. Volcic & M. Andrejevic (Eds.), Commercial Nationalism: Selling the Nation and Nationalizing the Sell (pp. 14–26). New York and London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- U.S. Department of State. (2014). Investment Climate Statement—Kosovo. Retrieved October 20, 2016, from https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/229098.pdf.
- Valaskivi, K. (2016). Cool Nations: Media and the Social Imaginary of the Branded Country. New York and London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Van Ham, P., & Medvedev, S. (Eds.). (2002). Mapping European Security after Kosovo. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
- Volcic, Z., & Andrejevic, M. (2011). Nation Branding in the Era of Commercial Nationalism. International Journal of Communication, 5, 598–618. Retrieved October 20, 2016, from http://ijoc.org/index.php/ijoc/article/view/849.
- Volcic, Z., & Andrejevic, M. (Eds.). (2015). Commercial Nationalism: Selling the Nation and Nationalizing the Sell. New York and London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Wählisch, M., & Xharra, B. (2010). Public Diplomacy of Kosovo: Status Quo, Challenges and Options. Pristina: Friedrich-Ebert-Foundation. Retrieved October 20, 2016, from http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/bueros/kosovo/07845.pdf.
- Wählisch, M., & Xharra, B. (2012). Beyond Remittances: Public Diplomacy and Kosovo’s Diaspora. Pristina: Foreign Policy Club. Retrieved October 23, 2016, from http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2108317.
- Waisbord, S. (2003). State, Development, and Communication. In B. Mody (Ed.), International and Development Communication: A 21st-Century Perspective. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Wander, A. (2008, February 8). With Independence Looming, Kosovo to Pick a Flag. The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved October 20, 2016, from http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Europe/2008/0208/p25s04-woeu.html.
- Wolfensohn, J. D. (2005 ). A Proposal for a Comprehensive Development Framework. In J. D. Wolfensohn (Ed.), Voice for the World’s Poor: Selected Speeches and Writings of World Bank President James D. Wolfensohn, 1995–2005. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar