The Business of Bilateral Branding
- 311 Downloads
Global development intervention is intended to benefit donor and recipient communities through strategic and constructive social change. Recipient communities expect to improve social and political conditions, while donor communities expect to be recognized and appreciated for their resource allocation. Donors promote their interests through branding their interventions in ways that are designed to attract public attention. Bilateral donors engage in nation branding as an exercise in soft power. I situate bilateral branding as a product of development intervention through a targeted analysis of dominant bilateral agencies’ use of logos associated with their national agencies or aid programs. The author explores the connection between development branding and business approaches, resonant with an emerging privatization in the field, considering the consequences to engaging effective and ethical development programs. Although national branding campaigns are designed to promote positive images, these communication strategies may encompass multiple goals, from raising legitimacy and encouraging financial support among donor citizens, toward inspiring appreciation from those in recipient communities. But beyond these more explicit goals, we need to consider the potential consequences of these branding strategies to donor–recipient relationships, given the structuring of business approaches engaged.
KeywordsBilateral Branding USUnited States (US) USAIDUnited States Agency UK United Kingdom socialSocial Change
- Australian Government. (2016, May). Branding Aid Projects and Initiatives. Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved September 1, 2016, from http://dfat.gov.au/about-us/corporate/Pages/branding-aid-projects-and-initiatives.aspx.
- Balive, T. (2012, April 24). The Branding of U.S. Development Aid: Territorial Masquerades. Retrieved September 1, 2016, from http://territorialmasquerades.net/the-branding-of-u-s-development-aid/.
- Chakravartty P. (2008, October). Modernization Redux? Cultural Studies & Development Communication. Television & New Media. Retrieved September 27, 2016, from http://tvn.sagepub.com/content/early/2008/10/07/1527476408325730.
- Cooper, A. F. (2008). Celebrity Diplomacy. Boulder: Paradigm.Google Scholar
- DFID. (2014, June). UK Aid Branding Guidance. DFID. Retrieved September 1, 2016, from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/326391/UK_aid_branding_guidance_June_2014.pdf.
- Dutta, M. (2011). Communicating Social Change: Structure, Culture, Agency. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Edwards, M. (2009). Why ‘Philanthrocapitalism’ Is Not the Answer: Private Initiatives and International Development. In M. Kremer, P. van Lieshout, & R. Went (Eds.), Doing Good or Doing Better: Development Policies in a Globalizing World (pp. 237–254). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.Google Scholar
- Escobar, A. (1995). Encountering Development: The Making and Unmaking of the Third World. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
- Evans, W. D., Blitsetin, J., Hersey, J. C., Renaud, J., & Yaroch, A. L. (2008). Systematic Review of Public Health Branding. Retrieved September 22, 2016, from www.comminit/com/global/content/systematic-review-public-health-branding.
- Health ComPass. (2016). How to Create a Brand Strategy. How-to Guide. Retrieved September 22, 2016, from www.healthcompass.org/how-to-guides/how-create-brand-strategy-part-1-using-audience-insight-drive-your-brand, www.healthcompass.org/how-to-guides/how-create-brand-strategy-part-2-developing-positioning-brand-product-or-service-or-behavior, www.healthcompass.org/how-to-guides/how-create-brand-strategy-part-3-developing-personality-and-look-brand.
- Hoogeveen, J. (2016). Branding Development? World Bank. Retrieved September 1, 2016, from http://blogs.worldbank.org/africacan/branding-development.
- Huesca, R. (2002). Participatory Approaches to Communication and Development. In W. B. Gudykunst & B. Mody (Eds.), Handbook of International and Intercultural Communication (pp. 499–518). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
- Irish Aid. (2016, June). Guidelines: Irish Aid Logo for Partners. Retrieved October 1, 2016, from https://www.irishaid.ie/media/irishaid/allwebsitemedia/20newsandpublications/irish-aid-logo-guidelines-partners-june-2016.pdf.
- Kapoor, I. (2013). Celebrity Humanitarianism: The Ideology of Global Charity. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Kotler, P., Roberto, N., & Lee, N. (2002). Social Marketing: Improving the Quality of Life (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
- McGoey, L. (2015). No Such Thing as a Free Gift. London: Verso.Google Scholar
- Monllos, K. (2015, May 4). The United Nations is Working on the ‘World’s Largest Advertising Campaign’ with the Goal of Tackling Society’s Greatest Challenges in 15 years. Adweek. Retrieved September 1, 2016, from http://www.adweek.com/brand-marketing/united-nations-working-worlds-largest-advertising-campaign-164497/.
- Mungcal, I. (2012, July 30). Sweden Redesigns Aid Brand. Inside Development. Retrieved September 1, 2016, from https://www.devex.com/news/sweden-redesigns-aid-brand-78801.
- Nederveen Pieterse, J. (2009a). Development Theory: Deconstructions/Reconstructions. London: Sage.Google Scholar
- Nederveen Pieterse, J. (2009b). Twenty-First Century Globalization, Paradigm Shifts in Development. In M. Kremer, P. van Lieshout, & R. Went (Eds.), Doing Good or Doing Better: Development Policies in a Globalizing World (pp. 27–46). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.Google Scholar
- OECD. (2015). Development Aid Stable in 2014 but Flows to Poorest Countries still Falling. OECD. Retrieved April 27, 2015, from http://www.oecd.org/dac/stats/development-aid-stable-in-2014-but-flows-to-poorest-countries-still-falling.htm.
- OECD. (2016a). Official Development Assistance—Definition and Coverage. Retrieved April 27, 2015, from http://www.oecd.org/dac/stats/officialdevelopmentassistancedefinitionandcoverage.htm.
- OECD. (2016b). Table 1: Net Official Development Assistance from DAC and Other Donors in 2015. Retrieved October 17, 2016, from https://www.oecd.org/dac/stats/ODA-2015-complete-data-tables.pdf.
- Pamment, J. (2016b). Towards a New Conditionality? The Convergence of International Development, Nation Brands and Soft Power in the British National Security Strategy. Journal of International Relations and Development. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41268-016-0074-9.
- Peck, J. (2008). The Age of Oprah: Cultural Icon for the Neoliberal Era. Boulder: Paradigm.Google Scholar
- Richey, L., & Ponte, S. (2011). Brand Aid: Shopping Well to Save the World. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
- Riddell, R. C. (2009). Does Foreign Aid Work? In M. Kremer, P. van Lieshout, & R. Went (Eds.), Doing Good or Doing Better: Development Policies in a Globalizing World (pp. 47–80). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.Google Scholar
- Saxton, J. (2006). Polishing the Diamond: Values, Image and Brand as a Source of Strength for Charities. Retrieved September 1, 2016, from www.comminit/com/global/content/polishing-diamonds-value-image-and-brand-source-strength-charities.
- Tomlinson, B. (2014). Reality of Aid 2014 Report: Rethinking Partnerships in a Post-2015 World: Towards Equitable, Inclusive and Sustainable Development. Quezon City, Phillippines: IBON International.Google Scholar
- Tsaliki, L., Franonikolopoulos, C., & Huliaras, A. (2011). Making Sense of Transnational Celebrity Activism: Causes, Methods and Consequences. In L. Tsaliki, C. A. Frangonikilopoulos, & A. Huliaras (Eds.), Transnational Celebrity Activism in Global Politics: Changing the World? (pp. 297–311). Bristol, UK: Intellect.Google Scholar
- USAID. (2015). ADS Chapter 320: Branding and Marking. File Name: 320_010215. Responsible Office: LPA. Partial Revision Date: 01/02/2015. Retrieved September 1, 2016, from https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1868/320.pdf.
- USAID. (2016a). USAID Branding: Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved September 1, 2016, from https://www.usaid.gov/branding.faqs.
- USAID. (2016b). Branding. Retrieved September 1, 2016, from https://www.usaid.gov/branding.
- USAID. (2016c). USAID Graphic Standards Manual and Partner Co-branding Guide. Retrieved September 1, 2016, from https://www.usaid.gov/branding/gsm.
- Vaishnav, M. (2012, June 26). Will Branding Hurt the “Brand Value” of the UK’s Aid Agency? Center for Global Development. Retrieved September 1, 2016, from https://www.cgdev.org/blog/will-branding-hurt-%93brand-value%94-uk%92s-aid-agency.
- Wilkins, K., & Lee, K. S. (2016). Political Economy of Development. In O. Hemer (Ed.), Voice & Matter (pp. 71–86). Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Wilkins, K., & Mody, B. (Eds.). (2001). Communication, Development, Social Change, and Global Disparity [Special Issue]. Communication Theory, 11(4).Google Scholar
- Wilkins, K., Tufte, T., & Obregon, R. (Eds.). (2014). Handbook of Development Communication and Social Change. IAMCR Series. Oxford: Wiley.Google Scholar