Clinical Management in Early OA

  • Rita Grazina
  • Renato Andrade
  • Ricardo Bastos
  • Daniela Costa
  • Rogério Pereira
  • José Marinhas
  • António Maestro
  • João Espregueira-Mendes
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1059)


Knee osteoarthritis affects an important percentage of the population throughout their life. Several factors seem to be related to the development of knee osteoarthritis including genetic predisposition, gender, age, meniscal deficiency, lower limb malalignments, joint instability, cartilage defects, and increasing sports participation. The latter has contributed to a higher prevalence of early onset of knee osteoarthritis at younger ages with this active population demanding more consistent and durable outcomes. The diagnosis is complex and the common signs and symptoms are often cloaked at these early stages. Classification systems have been developed and are based on the presence of knee pain and radiographic findings coupled with magnetic resonance or arthroscopic evidence of early joint degeneration. Nonsurgical treatment is often the first-line option and is mainly based on daily life adaptations, weight loss, and exercise, with pharmacological agents having only a symptomatic role. Surgical treatment shows positive results in relieving the joint symptomatology, increasing the knee function and delaying the development to further degenerative stages. Biologic therapies are an emerging field showing early promising results; however, further high-level research is required.


Early osteoarthritis Knee Cartilage 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rita Grazina
    • 1
  • Renato Andrade
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Ricardo Bastos
    • 2
    • 3
    • 5
  • Daniela Costa
    • 6
  • Rogério Pereira
    • 2
    • 4
    • 7
  • José Marinhas
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • António Maestro
    • 8
    • 9
  • João Espregueira-Mendes
    • 2
    • 3
    • 10
    • 11
    • 12
  1. 1.Orthopaedic Surgery at Centro Hospitalar de Vila Nova de Gaia/Espinho E.P.EVila Nova de GaiaPortugal
  2. 2.Clínica do Dragão, Espregueira-Mendes Sports Centre - FIFA Medical Centre of ExcellencePortoPortugal
  3. 3.Dom Henrique Research CentrePortoPortugal
  4. 4.Faculty of Sports, University of PortoPortoPortugal
  5. 5.Fluminense Federal UniversityNiteroi/Rio de JaneiroBrazil
  6. 6.SMIC Dragão - Serviço Médico de Imagem ComputorizadaPortoPortugal
  7. 7.Faculty of Health SciencesUniversity Fernando PessoaPortoPortugal
  8. 8.Real Sporting de Gijón SADGijónSpain
  9. 9.FREMAP Mutua de AccidentesGijónSpain
  10. 10.Orthopaedics Department of Minho UniversityMinhoPortugal
  11. 11.3B’s Research Group–Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, University of Minho, Headquarters of the European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative MedicineGuimarãesPortugal
  12. 12.ICVS/3B’s–PT Government Associate LaboratoryBraga/GuimarãesPortugal

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