Smart Cities pp 207-240 | Cite as

Risks and Challenges of Adopting Electric Vehicles in Smart Cities

Chapter
Part of the Computer Communications and Networks book series (CCN)

Abstract

Oil prices and increased carbon emissions are two of the key issues affecting mainstream transportation globally. Hence, EVs (Electric Vehicles) are becoming popular as they do not depend on oil, and the GHG (Greenhouse Gases) do not contribute to GHG emissions. In fact, their integration with smart grids makes them even more attractive. Although EV adoption is becoming widespread, three groups of challenges need to be addressed. These challenges are associated with EV technology adoption, integration of EVs and smart grids, and the supply chain of EV raw materials. Regarding the EV technology adoption, the risks and challenges include EV battery capacity, drivers’ range anxiety, the impact of auxiliary loads, EV drivers’ behavior, EV owners’ unwillingness to participate in the V2G (Vehicle-to-Grid) program, economic barriers to adopting EVs, difficult EV maintenance, EV performance mismatch between the lab and the real world, need for government regulation, lack of charging infrastructure such as not enough charging stations, and expensive batteries. There are additional challenges concerning the integration with the smart grids such as system overload, high-cost investment in V2G technology, load mismatch, and unmanaged recharging of EV batteries. Finally, there are challenges regarding the consistent supply of the raw materials needed for EVs. This chapter examines these risks and challenges, suggests solutions and provides recommendations for future research.

Keywords

Electric Vehicles EV EV adoption Smart grid EV integration V2G EV supply chain Renewable energy Power grid 

References

  1. 1.
    Agrawal SK, Boyles SD, Jiang N, Shahabi M, Unnikrishnan A (2015) Network route choice model for battery electric vehicle drivers with different risk attitudes. Transp Res Rec J Transp Res Board 2498:75–83.  https://doi.org/10.3141/2498-09CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aguilar S (2015) Electric vehicle (EV) storage supply chain risk and the energy market: a micro and macroeconomic risk management approach. ProQuest Dissertations PublishingGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Avci B, Girotra K, Netessine S (2014) Electric vehicles with a battery switching station: adoption and environmental impact. Manag Sci 61:772–794.  https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.2014.1916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bishop JDK, Axon CJ, Bonilla D, Banister D (2016) Estimating the grid payments necessary to compensate additional costs to prospective electric vehicle owners who provide vehicle-to-grid ancillary services. Energy 94:715–727.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2015.11.029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bonges HA III, Lusk AC (2016) Addressing electric vehicle (EV) sales and range anxiety through parking layout, policy and regulation. Transp Res Part Policy Pract 83:63–73.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tra.2015.09.011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bush SF (2014) Introduction to power systems before smart grid. In: Smart grid. Wiley, New York, pp 1–53Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Castro TS, de Souza TM, Silveira JL (2017) Feasibility of electric vehicle: electricity by grid × photovoltaic energy. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 69:1077–1084.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.09.099CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Eising JW, van Onna T, Alkemade F (2014) Towards smart grids: identifying the risks that arise from the integration of energy and transport supply chains. Appl Energy 123:448–455.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.12.017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Haddadian G, Khodayar M, Shahidehpour M (2015) Accelerating the global adoption of electric vehicles: barriers and drivers. Electr J 28:53–68.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tej.2015.11.011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hendrickson TP, Kavvada O, Shah N, Sathre R, Scown CD (2015) Life-cycle implications and supply chain logistics of electric vehicle battery recycling in California. Environ Res Lett 10:14011.  https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/10/1/014011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hermann F, Rothfurs F (2015) Introduction to hybrid electric vehicles, battery electric vehicles and off road electric vehicles.  Advances in Battery Technologies for Electric Vehicles, pp 3–16Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hu J, Morais H, Sousa T, Lind M (2016) Electric vehicle fleet management in smart grids: a review of services, optimization and control aspects. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 56:1207–1226.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.12.014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jiang DR, Powell WB (2016) Optimal policies for risk-averse electric vehicle charging with spot purchases. arXiv preprint arXiv:1605.02848
  14. 14.
    Jiménez-Espadafor FJ, Guerrero DP, Trujillo EC, García MT, Wideberg J (2015) Fully optimized energy management for propulsion, thermal cooling and auxiliaries of a serial hybrid electric vehicle. Appl Therm Eng 91:694–705.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2015.08.020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kumar NS, Schier M (2014) Increasing efficiency of ecological vehicles by integrating auxiliary units directly to the traction shaft. In: 2014 ninth international conference on ecological vehicles and renewable energy EVER, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Liu L, Kong F, Liu X, Peng Y, Wang Q (2015) A review on electric vehicles interacting with renewable energy in smart grid. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 51:648–661.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.06.036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lloyd E (2017) Curtin’s driverless bus, autonomous bus, automated driving technology—Curtin’s driverless bus. Curtin University, Perth, Australia. In: Research Curtin. http://research.curtin.edu.au/institutes-centres/driverless-bus/. Accessed 5 Apr 2017
  18. 18.
    Loisel R, Pasaoglu G, Thiel C (2014) Large-scale deployment of electric vehicles in Germany by 2030: an analysis of grid-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-grid concepts. Energy Policy 65:432–443.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2013.10.029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    López MA, de la Torre S, Martín S, Aguado JA (2015) Demand-side management in smart grid operation considering electric vehicles load shifting and vehicle-to-grid support. Int J Electr Power Energy Syst 64:689–698.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijepes.2014.07.065CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    López-Arquillos A, Rubio-Romero JC, Súarez-Cebador M, Pardo-Ferreira M del C (2015) Comparative risk assessment of vehicle maintenance activities: hybrid, battery electric, and hydrogen fuel cell cars. Int J Ind Ergon 47:53–60.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ergon.2015.02.005
  21. 21.
    Mwasilu F, Justo JJ, Kim E-K, Do TD, Jung J-W (2014) Electric vehicles and smart grid interaction: a review on vehicle to grid and renewable energy sources integration. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 34:501–516.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2014.03.031CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Newbery D, Strbac G (2016) What is needed for battery electric vehicles to become socially cost competitive? Econ Transp 5:1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecotra.2015.09.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nezamoddini N, Wang Y (2016) Risk management and participation planning of electric vehicles in smart grids for demand response. Energy 116(1):836–850.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2016.10.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Nunes P, Figueiredo R, Brito MC (2016) The use of parking lots to solar-charge electric vehicles. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 66:679–693.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.08.015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Richardson DB (2013) Encouraging vehicle-to-grid (V2G) participation through premium tariff rates. J Power Sources 243:219–224.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.06.024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ryan N, McKenzie L (2016) Utilities’ role in transport electrification: promoting competition, balancing risks. Public Util Fortn 154:32–37Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Simpson A (2009) Environmental attributes of electric vehicles in Australia. Curtin Universty sustainability InstituteGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sovacool BK, Hirsh RF (2009) Beyond batteries: An examination of the benefits and barriers to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and a vehicle-to-grid (V2G) transition. Energy Policy 37:1095–1103.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2008.10.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Tan KM, Ramachandaramurthy VK, Yong JY (2016) Integration of electric vehicles in smart grid: a review on vehicle to grid technologies and optimization techniques. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 53:720–732.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.09.012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ustun T (2015) Impact of EV and V2G on the smart grid and renewable energy systems. Veh Grid Link Electr Veh Smart Grid 79:11Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Vu K, Begouic MM, Novosel D (1997) Grids get smart protection and control. IEEE Comput Appl Power 10:40–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wager G, Whale J, Braunl T (2016) Driving electric vehicles at highway speeds: the effect of higher driving speeds on energy consumption and driving range for electric vehicles in Australia. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 63:158–165.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.05.060CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wang B (2016) Smart EV energy management system to support grid services. Ph.D., University of California, Los AngelesGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    White CD, Zhang KM (2011) Using vehicle-to-grid technology for frequency regulation and peak-load reduction. J Power Sources 196:3972–3980.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.11.010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Xu NZ, Chung CY (2015) Uncertainties of EV charging and effects on well-being analysis of generating systems. IEEE Trans Power Syst 30:2547–2557.  https://doi.org/10.1109/tpwrs.2014.2362653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Yang J, Hao W, Chen L, Chen J, Jin J, Wang F (2016) Risk assessment of distribution networks considering the charging-discharging behaviors of electric vehicles. Energies 9:560.  https://doi.org/10.3390/en9070560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Yang L, Zhang J, Poor HV (2014) Risk-aware day-ahead scheduling and real-time dispatch for electric vehicle charging. IEEE Trans Smart Grid 5:693–702.  https://doi.org/10.1109/tsg.2013.2290862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Yong JY, Ramachandaramurthy VK, Tan KM, Mithulananthan N (2015) A review on the state-of-the-art technologies of electric vehicle, its impacts and prospects. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 49:365–385.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.04.130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Yu Z (2017) Large scale charging of electric vehicles: technology and economy. Ph.D., Cornell UniversityGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Zhang Z, Li W, Zhang C, Chen J (2017) Climate control loads prediction of electric vehicles. Appl Therm Eng 110:1183–1188.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2016.08.186CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vidyasagar Potdar
    • 1
  • Saima Batool
    • 1
  • Aneesh Krishna
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Information SystemsCurtin UniversityPerthAustralia
  2. 2.Department of ComputingCurtin UniversityPerthAustralia

Personalised recommendations