Advertisement

The Living Environment of Immigrants and Their Descendants: Perceived Discrimination and Segregation

  • Jean-Louis Pan Ké ShonEmail author
  • Claire Scodellaro
Chapter
Part of the INED Population Studies book series (INPS, volume 8)

Abstract

This chapter looks at the living environment of immigrants and their descendants and the characteristics of the neighbourhoods where they live. As in other European countries, immigrants in France tend to live in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, with a degree of concentration that varies by city or town of residence and above all by origin. People of sub-Saharan and North African origin live mainly in densely populated residential areas. Alongside people of Turkish origin, they frequently live in neighbourhoods with high unemployment and above-average proportions of immigrants, so they more often report living in a mainly “ethnic” neighbourhood, especially if it is disadvantaged. However, they are distributed across the entire social spectrum of these neighbourhoods, and their residential mobility is both quantitatively and qualitatively high, despite the experience of “downward mobility” for some. European immigrants and their descendants are pursuing the process of residential incorporation. Several types of social-spatial environments co-exist in France, with a very “white” rural habitat at one extreme, contrasting sharply with the multi-ethnic and segregated urban spaces that correspond in part to the most disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Reported ethnic discrimination in housing is relatively limited (9% for sub-Saharan Africans and North Africans) but probably under-estimated by those concerned.

References

  1. Blanc-Chaléard, M.-C. (2006). Les immigrés et le logement en France depuis le XIXe siècle. Une histoire paradoxale. Hommes et migrations, 1264, 20–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bråmå, A. (2006). “White flight”? The production and reproduction of immigrant concentration areas in Swedish cities, 1990–2000. Urban Studies, 43(7), 1127–1146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Charmes, É. (2009). Pour une approche critique de la mixité sociale. Redistribuer les populations ou les ressources? La Vie des idées, http://www.laviedesidees.fr/Pour-une-approche-critiquede- la.html.
  4. Combes, P.-P., Decreuse, B., Schmutz, B., & Trannoy, A., (2012). The neighbor is king: Customer discrimination in the housing market. IDEP working paper, 1003.Google Scholar
  5. De Rudder, V. (1991). Seuil de tolérance et cohabitation ethnique. In P.-A. Taguieff (Ed.), Face au racisme (Vol. 2, pp. 154–166). Paris: La Découverte, coll. “Essais”.Google Scholar
  6. Forrest, R., & Murie, A. (1990). Residualisation and council housing: A statistical update. Bristol: School for Advanced Urban Studies.Google Scholar
  7. Genest, S., Kirszbaum, T., & Pougnet, F. (1996). Les Représentations de l’ethnicité dans les politiques locales du logement. Paris: Rapport Acadie-PCA.Google Scholar
  8. Grafmeyer, Y. (1994). Sociologie urbaine. Paris: Nathan.Google Scholar
  9. Haute autorité de lutte contre les discriminations et pour l’égalité. (2009). Rapport annuel de la Halde 2009. http://www.halde.fr/IMG/pdf/rapport_annuel_2009.pdf
  10. Kepel, G., Arslan, L., & Zouheir, S. (2011). Banlieue de la République. Paris: Institut Montaigne.Google Scholar
  11. Kesteloot, C. (1986). Concentration d’étrangers et politique urbaine à Bruxelles. Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, 2(3), 151–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kirszbaum, T. (1999). Les immigrés dans les politiques locales de l’habitat. Variations locales sur le thème de la diversité. Sociétés contemporaines, 33–34, 87–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kirszbaum, T. (2008). Mixité sociale dans l’habitat. Revue de la littérature dans une perspective comparatiste. Paris: La Documentation française, coll. “Études et Recherches”.Google Scholar
  14. Lapeyronnie, D. (2008). Ghetto urbain. Ségrégation, violence, pauvreté en France aujourd’hui. Paris: Robert Laffont, coll. “Le monde comme il va”.Google Scholar
  15. Masclet, O. (2005). Du ‘bastion’ au ‘ghetto’. Le communisme municipal en butte à l’immigration. Actes de la recherche en sciences sociales, 159, 10–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Maurin, É. (2004). Le ghetto français. Enquête sur le séparatisme social. Paris: Seuil, coll. “La République des idées”.Google Scholar
  17. Musterd, S., & Deurloo, M. (1997). Ethnic segregation and the role of public housing in Amsterdam. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, 88(2), 158–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Observatoire national des zones urbaines sensibles. (2004). Rapport 2004. Paris: ministère de l’Emploi, du Travail et de la Cohésion sociale, Délégation interministérielle à la Ville, ONZUS.Google Scholar
  19. Pan Ké Shon, J.-L. (2009). Ségrégation ethnique et ségrégation sociale en quartiers sensibles. Revue Française de Sociologie, 50(3), 451–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Pan Ké Shon, J.-L. (2010). The ambivalent nature of ethnic segregation in France’s disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Urban Studies, 47(8), 1603–1623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Pan Ké Shon, J.-L. (2011). Residential segregation of immigrants in France: An overview. Population and Societies, 477.Google Scholar
  22. Pan Ké Shon, J.-L. (2013). Quarante ans de ségrégation... et d’incorporation des immigrés en France, 1968–2007. Rapport à l’Agence nationale à la cohésion sociale et à l’égalité des chances et au Plan urbain, construction, architecture. http://jlpks.free.fr/x_site2/d_articles_finalises/Rapport_PUCA_ACSE_2013.pdf
  23. Pan Ké Shon, J.-L., & Verdugo, G. (2014). Ségrégation et incorporation des immigrés en France. Ampleur et intensité entre 1968 et 2007. Revue Française de Sociologie, 55(2), 245–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pan Ké Shon, J.-L., & Verdugo, G. (2015). Forty years of immigrant segregation in France, 1968–2007. How different is the new immigration? Urban Studies, 52(5), 823–840.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Park, R. E. (1926). The urban community as a spatial pattern and a moral order. In E. W. Burgess (Ed.), The Urban Community (pp. 3–18). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  26. Préteceille, E. (2006). La ségrégation contre la cohésion sociale : la métropole parisienne. In H. Lagrange (Ed.), L’épreuve des inégalités (pp. 195–246). Paris: PUF, coll. “Le Lien social”.Google Scholar
  27. Sala Pala, V. (2005). Le racisme institutionnel dans la politique du logement social. Sciences de la société, 65, 87–102.Google Scholar
  28. Simon, P. (1996). Les immigrés et le logement : une singularité qui s’atténue. InDonnées Sociales. Paris: INSEE.Google Scholar
  29. Simpson, L. (2004). Statistics of racial segregation: Measures, evidence and policy. Urban Studies, 41(3), 661–681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Tanter, A., & Toubon, J.-C. (1999). Mixité sociale et politiques de peuplement : genèse de l’ethnicisation des opérations de réhabilitation. Sociétés contemporaines, 3334, 59–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tissot, S. (2005). Une “discrimination informelle” ? Usage du concept de mixité sociale dans la gestion des attributions de logement HLM. Actes de la recherche en sciences sociales, 159, 54–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Uitermark, J. (2003). ‘Social mixing’ and the management of disadvantaged neighbourhoods: The Dutch policy of urban restructuring revisited. Urban Studies, 40(3), 531–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Verdugo, G. (2011). Public housing and residential segregation of immigrants in France, 1968–1999. Discussion Paper IZA, 5456.Google Scholar
  34. Wacquant, L. (2010). Designing urban seclusion in the 21st Century. Perspecta: The Yale Architectural Journal, 43, 165–178.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Crest-LSQParisFrance
  2. 2.Université Paris 1 Panthéon-SorbonneParisFrance

Personalised recommendations