Employment and Wages of Immigrants and Descendants of Immigrants: Measures of Inequality and Perceived Discrimination
Descendants of immigrants of non-European origin are much more likely to be unemployed than people in the French mainstream population, even after controlling for differences in structural characteristics (education, experience, age, region of residence, etc.). After entering employment, their wages are lower than those of their mainstream counterparts, although the wage penalty is relatively small. These groups also feel strongly that they are subject to discrimination in recruitment procedures and career advancement. When the two ways of measuring discrimination are matched against each other, we find that the strength of perceived discrimination at individual level is correlated with the degree of inequality measured on the labour market. Individuals who are unemployed despite observed personal characteristics that would be favourable to employment if they belonged to the mainstream population are also those who express the strongest perception of discrimination.
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