Advertisement

Language Use and Family Transmission in Migration Context

  • Stephanie CondonEmail author
  • Corinne Régnard
Chapter
Part of the INED Population Studies book series (INPS, volume 8)

Abstract

This chapter analyses the foreign language usage of migrants to France over the last 50 years. The TeO survey enables us to place language usage in the context of individual linguistic repertoires and migration trajectories, taking account of social characteristics and transnational practices. The use of languages other than French evolves in response to strong competition from the majority language. Moreover, many immigrants from countries with historical colonial links to France spoke French even before arriving in the country.

After a first part devoted to immigrants’ linguistic skills and their command of French, the chapter then describes the profile of immigrants who continue to speak other languages, the context in which they use them, and the factors that favour their continued use, notably family transmission. The last part examines the extent to which family languages are mastered by descendants of immigrants after reaching adulthood. Placing different languages in perspective reveals the degree to which individuals acknowledge this transmission as a cultural inheritance and/or a resource that can also be mobilized outside the family sphere. Attitudes in this respect vary from one language to another.

References

  1. Alba, R., Logan, J., Lutz, A., & Stults, B. (2002). Only English by the third generation? Loss and preservation of the mother tongue among the grandchildren of contemporary immigrants. Demography, 39(3), 467–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Billiez, J., & Trimaille, C. (2001). Plurilinguisme, variations, insertion scolaire et sociale. Langage et Societe, 98, 105–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Carliner, G. (2000). The language ability of US immigrants: Assimilation and cohort effects. International Migration Review, 34(1), 158–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chaker, S. (2004). L’enseignement du berbère en France. Une ouverture incertaine. Hommes et migrations, 1252, 25–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chiswick, B. R., Lee, Y. L., & Miller, P. W. (2002). Immigrants’ language skills: The Australian experience in alongitudinal survey. IZA Discussion Paper n°502.Google Scholar
  6. Chiswick, B. R., & Miller, P. W. (2007). The economics of language: International analyses. London, New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Condon, S. (2005). La transmission familiale du créole dans le contexte métropolitain. In C. Lefèvre & A. Filhon (Eds.), Histoire de familles, histoires familiales. Les résultats de l’enquête Famille de 1999 (pp. 547–561). Paris: INED., “Cahiers de l’Ined”.Google Scholar
  8. Condon, S., & Régnard, C. (2010). Héritage et pratiques linguistiques des descendants d’immigrés en France. Hommes et migrations, (1288), 44–56.Google Scholar
  9. Délégation générale à la langue française et aux langues de France (DGLFLF). (2006a). La langue française dans le monde. Paris: DGLFLF. coll. “Références”.Google Scholar
  10. Délégation générale à la langue française et aux langues de France (DGLFLF). (2006b). L’intercompréhension entre langues apparentées. Paris: DGLFLF. “Synthèse”.Google Scholar
  11. Deprez, C. (1994). Les enfants bilingues. Langues et familles. Paris: Didier/Credif Essais.Google Scholar
  12. Fibbi, R., & Matthey, M. (2010). Petits-enfants de migrants italiens et espagnols en Suisse. Relations familiales et pratiques langagières. Hommes et migrations, 1288, 58–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Filhon, A. (2009a). Langues d’ici et d’ailleurs : transmettre l’arabe et le berbère en France. Paris: INED. “Cahiers de l’Ined”.Google Scholar
  14. Filhon, A. (2009b). Plurilinguisme et hiérarchie sociale entre les langues en France. In F. Guérin-Pace, O. Samuel, & I. Ville (Eds.), En quête d’appartenances. L’enquête Histoire de vie sur la construction des identités (pp. 167–180). Paris: INED., “Grandes Enquêtes”.Google Scholar
  15. Filhon, A., & Varro, G. (2005). Les couples mixtes, une catégorie hétérogène. In C. Lefèvre & A. Filhon (Eds.), Histoire de familles, histoires familiales. Les résultats de l’enquête Famille de 1999 (pp. 483–501). Paris: INED., “Cahiers de l’Ined”.Google Scholar
  16. Fishman, J. A. (1991). Reversing language shift: Theoretical and empirical foundations of assistance to threatened languages. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  17. Gordon, M. (1964). Assimilation in American life. The role of race, religion and national origins. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Haikkola, L. (2011). Making connections: Second-generation children and the transnational field of relations. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 37(8), 1201–1217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Halfacree, K. (2004). A utopian imagination in migration’s terra incognita? Acknowledging the non-economic worlds of migration decision-making. Population, Space and Place, 10, 239–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Héran, F. (1993). L’unification linguistique de la France. Population et Sociétés, 285, 1–4.Google Scholar
  21. Héran, F. (2004). Une approche quantitative de l’intégration linguistique en France. Hommes et migrations, 1252, 10–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Héran, F., Filhon, A., & Deprez, C. (2002). Language transmission in France in the course of the 20th century. Population and Societies, 376, 1–4.Google Scholar
  23. Kateb, K. (2005). École, population et société en Algérie. Paris: L’Harmattan. “Histoire et perspectives méditerranéennes”.Google Scholar
  24. Le Quentrec-Creven, G. (2011). L’aisance en français des primo-arrivants. Infos Migrations, 28.Google Scholar
  25. Lévy, F. (1977). Modèles et pratiques en changement: le cas des Portugaises immigrées en région parisienne. Ethnologie Française, 7(3), 287–298.Google Scholar
  26. Lutz, A., & Crist, S. (2008). Why do bilingual boys get better grades in English-only America? The impacts of gender, language and family interaction on academic achievement of Latino/a children of immigrants. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 1–23.Google Scholar
  27. Marley, D. (2011). L’usage de la messagerie instantanée dans le développement d’une identité bilingue. In F. Liénard & S. Zlitni (Eds.), La communication électronique : enjeux de langues (pp. 257–264). Limoges: Lambert-Lucas.Google Scholar
  28. Massey, D. (2004). Review of Who Are We? By Samuel P. Huntington. Population and Development Review, 30, 543–548.Google Scholar
  29. Mathias R. (2013). Intégration de la seconde génération issue de l’immigration turque en France, Allemagne, Pays-Bas, PhD thesis, University of Lisbon.Google Scholar
  30. Myers, D., Gao, X., & Emeka, A. (2009). The gradient of immigrant age-at-arrival effects on socio- economic outcomes in the U.S. International Migration Review, 43, 205–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Petek, G. (2004). Les Elco, entre reconnaissance et marginalisation. Hommes et migrations, 1252, 45–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Portes, A., & Rumbaut, R. (2006). Immigrant America. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  33. Portes, A., & Schauffler, R. (1994). Language and the second generation: Bilingualism yesterday and today. International Migration Review, 28(4), 640–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rumbaut, R. G. (2004). Ages, life stages and generational cohorts: Decomposing the immigrant first and second generations in the United States. In J. DeWind & A. Portes (Eds.), Rethinking migration: New theoretical and empirical perspectives (pp. 342–387). New York/Oxford: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
  35. Rumbaut, R. G., Massey, D., & Bean, F. (2006). Linguistic life expectancies: Immigrant language retention in Southern California. Population and Development Review, 32(3), 447–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Schneider, J., Fokkema, T., Matias, R., Stojcic, S., Ugrina, D., & Vera-Larrucea, C. (2012). Identities. Urban belonging and intercultural relations. In M. Crul, J. Schneider, & F. Lelie (Eds.), The european second generation compared. Does the integration context matter? (pp. 285–340). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, Imiscoe Research.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Simon, P. (1997). L’acculturation linguistique : utilisation du français et transmission de la langue des immigrés à leurs enfants. Migrants-Formation, 108, 53–66.Google Scholar
  38. Stevens, G. (1986). Sex differences in language shift in the United States. Social Science Research, 71(1), 31–36.Google Scholar
  39. Stevens, G. (1999). Age at immigration and second language proficiency among foreign-born adults. Language and Society, 28(4), 555–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tribalat, M. (Ed.). (1996). De l’immigration à l’assimilation. Enquête sur les populations d’origine étrangère en France. Paris: La Découverte-INED.Google Scholar
  41. Trimaille, C. (2004). Pratiques langagières chez les adolescents d’origine maghrébine. Hommes et migrations, 1252, 66–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut national d’études démographiques (INED)ParisFrance
  2. 2.DPMParisFrance

Personalised recommendations