Advertisement

Travel Satisfaction and Well-Being

  • Patricia L. Mokhtarian
  • Ram M. Pendyala
Part of the Applying Quality of Life Research book series (BEPR)

Abstract

One approach to assessing the quality of life associated with a person’s daily travel is to obtain a summary judgment of that individual’s satisfaction with travel. Such a judgment could be considered a measure of the transportation-domain-specific subjective well-being (SWB). A number of such summary measures have been developed, including happiness, liking, pleasantness, a subjective valuation of the time spent traveling, and two different Satisfaction with Travel Scales (STS). In this chapter, we discuss some of the conceptual differences among these various measures, and review some key empirical results associated with them. In particular, we conceive of travel satisfaction as being directly influenced by five components of travel, as well as by socio-economic/demographic (SED) traits, attitudes, and trip-/travel-related characteristics. The chapter includes an analysis of data drawn from the well-being module of the 2013 American Time Use Survey (ATUS), to offer preliminary insights into how people feel about their travel episodes, differences in travel-related emotions across socio-economic groups, and how travel compares with other activities in terms of engendering feelings of well-being. We follow with a discussion of the relationship of travel satisfaction to overall well-being, and conclude with some brief reflections on the role of this research domain in our rapidly changing transportation milieu.

Keywords

Activities while traveling American Time Use Survey (ATUS) Positive utility of travel Quality of life Satisfaction with travel Service quality Subjective well-being Travel experience 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank Venu Garikapati of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for his assistance in compiling tabulations of emotional measures using data from the 2013 well-being module of the American Time Use Survey Data. The authors also gratefully acknowledge partial support provided by the Center for Teaching Old Models New Tricks (TOMNET), a University Transportation Center sponsored by the US Department of Transportation through Grant No. 69A3551747116.

References

Service Quality-Based Satisfaction Measures

  1. Cronin, J. J., Jr., & Taylor, S. A. (1994). SERVPERF versus SERVQUAL: Reconciling performance based and perceptions-minus-expectations measurement of service quality. Journal of Marketing, 58(1), 125–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Eboli, L., & Mazzulla, G. (2009). A new customer satisfaction index for evaluating transit service quality. Journal of Public Transportation, 12(3), 21–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Eiro, T., & Martinez, L. M. (2014). Modeling daily mobility satisfaction using a structural equation model. In J. F. de Sousa & R. Rossi (Eds.), Computer-based modelling and optimization in transportation (pp. 391–403). Cham: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hensher, D. A., & Prioni, P. (2002). A service quality index for area-wide contract performance assessment. Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, 36(1), 93–113.Google Scholar
  5. Hill, N., Brierley, J., & MacDougall, R. (2003). How to measure customer satisfaction (2nd ed.). Hampshire: Gower Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  6. Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., & Berry, L. L. (1985). A conceptual model of service quality and its implications for future research. Journal of Marketing, 49(4), 41–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Teas, R. K. (1993). Expectations, performance evaluation, and consumers’ perceptions of quality. Journal of Marketing, 57(4), 18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Subjective Well-Being-Based Satisfaction Measures

  1. Abou-Zeid, M., Witter, R., Bierlaire, M., Kaufmann, V., & Ben-Akiva, M. (2012). Happiness and travel mode switching: Findings from a Swiss public transportation experiment. Transport Policy, 19(1), 93–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bergstad, C. J., Gamble, A., Gärling, T., Hagman, O., Polk, M., Ettema, D., Friman, M., & Olsson, L. E. (2011). Subjective well-being related to satisfaction with daily travel. Transportation, 38(1), 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cao, J. (2013). The association between light rail transit and satisfactions with travel and life: Evidence from twin cities. Transportation, 40(5), 921–933.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cao, J., & Ettema, D. (2014). Satisfaction with travel and residential self-selection: How do preferences moderate the impact of the Hiawatha light rail transit line? Journal of Transport and Land Use, 7(3), 93–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. De Vos, J., Schwanen, T., van Acker, V., & Witlox, F. (2015). How satisfying is the Scale for Travel Satisfaction? Transportation Research Part F, 29, 121–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. De Vos, J., Mokhtarian, P. L., Schwanen, T., van Acker, V., & Witlox, F. (2016). Travel mode choice and travel satisfaction: Bridging the gap between decision utility and experienced utility. Transportation, 43, 771–796.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Diab, E. I., & El-Geneidy, A. M. (2014). Transitory optimism: Changes in passenger perception following bus service improvement over time. Transportation Research Record, 2415, 97–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Eriksson, L., Friman, M., & Gärling, T. (2013). Perceived attributes of bus and car mediating satisfaction with the work commute. Transportation Research A, 47, 87–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ettema, D., Gärling, T., Olsson, L. E., & Friman, M. (2010). Out-of-home activities, daily travel, & subjective well-being. Transportation Research A, 44, 723–732.Google Scholar
  10. Ettema, D., Gärling, T., Eriksson, L., Friman, M., Olsson, L. E., & Fujii, S. (2011). Satisfaction with travel and subjective well-being: development and test of a measurement tool. Transportation Research F, 14, 167–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ettema, D., Friman, M., Gärling, T., Olsson, L. E., & Fujii, S. (2012). How in-vehicle activities affect work commuters’ satisfaction with public transport. Journal of Transport Geography, 24, 215–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ettema, D., Gärling, T., Olsson, L. E., Friman, M., & Moerdijk, S. (2013). The road to happiness: Measuring Dutch car drivers’ satisfaction with travel. Transport Policy, 27, 171–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Friman, M., Fujii, S., Ettema, D., Gärling, T., & Olsson, L. E. (2013). Psychometric analysis of the satisfaction with travel scale. Transportation Research A, 48, 132–145.Google Scholar
  14. Gatersleben, B., & Uzzell, D. (2007). Affective appraisals of the daily commute: Comparing perceptions of drivers, cyclists, walkers, and users of public transport. Environment and Behavior, 39(3), 416–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lucas, J. L., & Heady, R. B. (2002). Flextime commuters and their driver stress, feelings of time urgency, and commute satisfaction. Journal of Business and Psychology, 16(4), 565–571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Manaugh, K., & El-Geneidy, A. M. (2013). Does distance matter? Exploring the links among values, motivations, home location, and satisfaction in walking trips. Transportation Research A, 50, 198–208.Google Scholar
  17. Olsson, L. E., Friman, M., Pareigis, J., & Edvardsson, B. (2012). Measuring service experience: Applying the satisfaction with travel scale in public transport. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 19(4), 413–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Olsson, L. E., Gärling, T., Ettema, D., Friman, M., & Fujii, S. (2013). Happiness and satisfaction with work commute. Social Indicators Research, 111(1), 255–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sirgy, M. J., Kruger, P. S., Lee, D.-J., & Yu, G. B. (2010). How does a travel trip affect tourists’ life satisfaction? Journal of Travel Research, 50(3), 261–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Smith, O. (2017). Commute well-being differences by mode: Evidence from Portland, Oregon, USA. Journal of Transport and Health, 4, 246–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. St-Louis, E., Manaugh, K., van Lierop, D., & El-Geneidy, A. (2014). The happy commuter: A comparison of commuter satisfaction across modes. Transportation Research F, 26, 160–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Susilo, Y. O., & Cats, O. (2014). Exploring key determinants of travel satisfaction for multi-modal trips by different traveler groups. Transportation Research A, 67, 366–380.Google Scholar
  23. Suzuki, H., Fujii, S., Gärling, T., Ettema, D., & Olsson, L. E. (2014). Rules for aggregated satisfaction with work commutes. Transportation, 41(3), 495–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Taniguchi, A., Grääs, C., & Friman, M. (2014). Satisfaction with travel, goal achievement, and voluntary behavioral change. Transportation Research F, 26, 10–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ye, R., & Titheridge, H. (2017). Satisfaction with the commute: The role of travel mode choice, built environment and attitudes. Transportation Research D, 52, 535–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Other Travel Satisfaction Measures

  1. Abou-Zeid, M., & Ben-Akiva, M. (2012). Well-being and activity-based models. Transportation, 39(6), 1189–1207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Choo, S., Collantes, G. O., & Mokhtarian, P. L. (2005). Wanting to travel, more or less: Exploring the determinants of the deficit and surfeit of personal travel. Transportation, 32, 135–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Circella, G., Salgado, J. R., Mokhtarian, P. L., Diana, M. (in progress, available from the authors). The impact of activities while traveling on the subjective valuation of travel time.Google Scholar
  4. Duarte, A., Garcia, C., Giannarakis, G., Limão, S., Polydoropoulou, A., & Litinas, N. (2010). New approaches in transportation planning: Happiness and transport economics. Netnomics, 11(1), 5–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Etezady, A., Circella, G., & Mokhtarian, P. L. (2017). Investigating the satisfaction with travel amounts: A comparison of commuters and noncommuters in California. Unpublished manuscript, available from the authors.Google Scholar
  6. Frei, C., Mahmassani, H. S., & Frei, A. (2015). Making time count: Traveler activity engagement on urban transit. Transportation Research Part A, 76, 58–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Lyons, G., Jain, J., & Weir, I. (2016). Changing times—a decade of empirical insight into the experience of rail passengers in Great Britain. Journal of Transport Geography, 57, 94–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Mokhtarian, P. L., Papon, F., Goulard, M., & Diana, M. (2015). What makes travel pleasant and/or tiring? An investigation based on the French National Travel Survey. Transportation, 42(6), 1103–1128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ory, D. T., & Mokhtarian, P. L. (2005). When is getting there half the fun? Modeling the liking for travel. Transportation Research A, 39(2–3), 97–123.Google Scholar
  10. Paez, A., & Whalen, K. (2010). Enjoyment of commute: A comparison of different transportation modes. Transportation Research A, 44, 537–549.Google Scholar
  11. Pedersen, T., Friman, M., & Kristensson, P. (2011). The role of predicted, on-line experienced and remembered satisfaction in current choice of public transport use. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 18, 471–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Susilo, Y. O., Lyons, G., Jain, J., & Atkins, S. (2012). Rail passengers’ time use and utility assessment: 2010 findings from Great Britain with multivariate analysis. Transportation Research Record, 2323, 99–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Other References

  1. Abou-Zeid, M., & Ben-Akiva, M. (2014). Satisfaction and travel choices. In T. Gärling, D. F. Ettema, & M. Friman (Eds.), Handbook of sustainable travel (pp. 53–65). Dordrecht: Springer. Available at https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-94-007-7034-8_4. Accessed 27 June 2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brickman, P., Coates, D., & Janoff-Bulman, R. (1978). Lottery winners and accident victims: Is happiness relative? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36(8), 917–927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chen, C.-C., & Petrick, J. F. (2013). Health and wellness benefits of travel experiences. Journal of Travel Research, 52(6), 709–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. De Vos, J., Schwanen, T., van Acker, V., & Witlox, F. (2013). Travel and subjective well-being: a focus on findings, methods and future research needs. Transport Reviews, 33(4), 421–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Delbosc, A. (2012). The role of well-being in transport policy. Transport Policy, 23, 25–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Evans, G. W., Wener, R. E., & Phillips, D. (2002). The morning rush hour: Predictability and stress. Environment and Behaviour, 34(4), 521–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Kaufman, V., Bergman, M. M., & Joye, D. (2004). Motility: Mobility as capital. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 28(4), 745–756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kitamura, R., Fujii, S., & Pas, E. I. (1997). Time-use data, analysis and modeling: Toward the next generation of transportation planning methodologies. Transport Policy, 4(4), 225–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. McDonald, N. (2015). Are millennials really the “Go-Nowhere” generation? Journal of the American Planning Association, 81(2), 90–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Mokhtarian, P. L. (2017). Subjective well-being and travel: Retrospect and prospect. Under review; available from the author.Google Scholar
  11. Mokhtarian, P. L., & Salomon, I. (2001). How ‘derived’ is the demand for travel? Some conceptual and measurement considerations. Transportation Research A, 35, 695–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Morris, E. A., & Guerra, E. (2015). Mood and mode: Does how we travel affect how we feel? Transportation, 42(1), 25–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Nordbakke, S., & Schwanen, T. (2014). Well-being & mobility: A theoretical framework and literature review focusing on older people. Mobilities, 9(1), 104–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Novaco, R. W., & Gonzalez, O. I. (2009). Commuting and well-being. In Y. Amichai-Hamburger (Ed.), Technology and psychological well-being (pp. 174–205). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511635373.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Reardon, L., & Abdallah, S. (2013). Well-being and transport: Taking stock and looking forward. Transport Reviews, 33(6), 634–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Schwanen, T., & Wang, D. (2014). Well-being, context, and everyday activities in space and time. Annals of the American Association of Geographers, 104(4), 833–851.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Shaw, F. A., Malokin, A., Mokhtarian, P. L., & Circella, G. (2018). Outcomes of travel-based multitasking: Reported benefits and disadvantages of conducting activities while commuting. Paper presented at the 2018 annual meeting of the transportation research board; available from the authors.Google Scholar
  18. Stradling, S. G., Anable, J., & Carreno, M. (2007). Performance, importance & user disgruntlement: A six-step method for measuring satisfaction with travel modes. Transportation Research A, 41(1), 98–106.Google Scholar
  19. Vella-Brodrick, D. A., & Stanley, J. (2013). The significance of transport mobility in predicting well-being. Transport Policy, 29, 236–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Waterhouse, J., Reilly, T., & Edwards, B. (2004). The stress of travel. Journal of Sports Sciences, 22(10), 946–965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Georgia Institute of TechnologyAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Arizona State UniversityTempeUSA

Personalised recommendations