Measurements of Antihypertensive Medications in Blood and Urine

  • Pankaj Gupta
  • Prashanth Patel
  • Maciej TomaszewskiEmail author
Part of the Updates in Hypertension and Cardiovascular Protection book series (UHCP)


Biochemical detection of antihypertensive medications in blood and urine is a recent addition to the diagnosis of therapeutic non-adherence. The biochemical analysis by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) provides a direct, objective and robust confirmation of the presence or absence of prescribed antihypertensive medications in bodily fluids. This chapter covers the laboratory principles and the clinical aspects of the biochemical screening for therapeutic non-adherence in management of hypertension.


Biochemical screening Adherence Non-adherence Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry Hypertension Cardiovascular disease Blood pressure 



The authors are grateful to Dan Lane in the Department of Chemical Pathology and Metabolic Disease, Leicester Royal Infirmary who prepared the illustrations used in this chapter. Our work on adherence is supported by British Heart Foundation Clinical Study (CS/17/3/32799).


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pankaj Gupta
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Prashanth Patel
    • 1
    • 2
  • Maciej Tomaszewski
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Chemical Pathology and Metabolic DiseaseUniversity Hospitals of Leicester NHS TrustLeicesterUK
  2. 2.Department of Cardiovascular SciencesUniversity of LeicesterLeicesterUK
  3. 3.Division of Cardiovascular Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and HealthUniversity of ManchesterManchesterUK
  4. 4.Division of Medicine and Manchester Heart CentreManchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester Academic Health Science CentreManchesterUK

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