Cytokines and Chemokines

  • Taku Yoshio
  • Hiroshi Okamoto


Neuropsychiatric syndromes of systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) is a life-threatening disorder and early diagnosis and proper treatment are critical for the management of patients with this disease. Brain magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalogram, neuropsychological tests and routine cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination are used clinically for the diagnosis of NPSLE. In addition to these tests, cytokine and chemokine levels in the CSF have been reported as useful diagnostic markers of NPSLE. This chapter provides an overview of the roles of cytokines and chemokines in NPSLE.


NPSLE Cytokines Chemokines BBB CSF IL-6 IL-8 MCP-1 IP-10 G-CSF TNF-α IL-10 IFN-α RANTES Fractalkine The IP-10/MCP-1 ratio 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Rheumatology and Clinical ImmunologySchool of Medicine, Jichi Medical UniversityShimotsuke-shiJapan
  2. 2.Minami-otsuka institute of technology, Minami-otsuka ClinicTokyoJapan

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