Enhancing Mathematical Cognitive Development Through Educational Interventions

  • Lori Kroeger
  • Rhonda Douglas Brown


In this chapter, we presents theory and research on mathematical interventions, which are programs used to provide supplementary opportunities to children who are struggling with learning mathematical concepts, facts, and procedures either in small groups or individually (Tiers 2 and 3 of the Response to Intervention framework). Fifteen mathematical interventions and curricula for students in Pre-Kindergarten through Post-Secondary levels are listed that meet the Institute of Education Sciences’ What Works Clearinghouse’s standards, with scientific evidence of potentially positive effects on mathematical outcomes. Three additional programs with digital components are highlighted: The Number Race; Fluency and Automaticity through Systematic Teaching with Technology (FASTT Math); and SRA Number Worlds® with Building Blocks®. For each of these programs, we provide an overview, describe the user’s experience, and summarize theoretical frameworks and efficacy studies. Furthermore, we describe how components of the programs are related to neuroscience theory and research on mathematical cognition and development, particularly Dehaene and colleagues’ triple-code model of numerical processing.


Mathematical interventions Response to intervention The Number Race FASTT Math Number Worlds Building Blocks Triple-code model 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lori Kroeger
  • Rhonda Douglas Brown
    • 1
  1. 1.Developmental & Learning Sciences Research CenterSchool of Education, University of CincinnatiCincinnatiUSA

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