Particle Ensembles in Penning Traps

  • Manuel Vogel
Part of the Springer Series on Atomic, Optical, and Plasma Physics book series (SSAOPP, volume 100)


In contrast to the situation with a single particle in a trap, the presence of many charged particles gives rise to long-range particle-particle interactions, collective effects, and partial shielding of the trap potential that leads to shifts of the oscillation frequencies. Here, we briefly discuss the most important collective effects and review the treatment of ion ensembles as non-neutral plasmas that show phase transitions between phases including a crystal-like state.


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion ResearchDarmstadtGermany

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