Hyperbolic and Cylindrical Penning Traps
The oldest Penning trap geometry in use is the hyperbolic shape, which provides good confinement properties by design, however was difficult to machine to high precisions at the time of its introduction, and offers limited access for particles and laser beams. Thus, cylindrical designs were brought forward, including more open structures. Here, we briefly review the hyperbolic and the most important forms of cylindrical Penning traps. Following that, we will have a look at variations on the concept and at the confinement properties.
- 8.P. Ghosh, Ion Traps (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1995)Google Scholar